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SAUDI ARABIAN

LITERATURE

Facts & Figures


Flag
green background, with in white letters the Muslim creed in Arabic: "There is no god but God: Muhammad is the Messenger of God."

Emblem
a date palm, representing vitality and growth, and two crossed swords, symbolizing justice and strength rooted in faith.

The Geographical location of Saudi Arabia

Capital

Riyadh

2439N 4646E

Desert in Saudi Arabia

the national museum of saudi arabia was opened in riyadh in 1999.

Population
as of the 2010, 247 million, including nearly 8.5 million expatriates.

million Muslims arrive for hajj

Religion
Islam, which is the basis of the legal system and of government. Islam is the second largest religion in the world.

Mecca Mosque Saudi Arabia

Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia: Quran Is Dominant Over the Bible; We Dont NeedAny Other Book

The Qur'an, widely regarded as the finest piece of literature work in the Arabic language.

Language
Arabic; English widely spoken in urban areas.

Article discussing the nature of the form, its history, terminology and the different traditions.

National Day
September 23, commemorating the foundation of the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932.

The foundation of the Saudi Kingdom by King Abdulaziz Al-Saud in 1932.

Government
Islamic state based on principles prescribed by the Qur'an (Islam's Holy Book) and the Shari'ah(Islamic law); Provincial Council System, Consultative Council (Majlis AlShura), and Council of Ministers.

Literature
Arabic literature (Arabic: / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-Arab) is the writing, both proseand poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language. The Arabic word used for literature is "adab", which is derived from a meaning of etiquette, and which implies politeness, culture and enrichment.

Arabic literature spans for over two millennium, it has three phases:

the pre-Islamic-The period before the writing of the Qur'an and the rise of Islam is known to Muslims as
Jahiliyyah or period of ignorance

Islamic
is literature written manuscripts with an Islamic perspective, in any language. The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights(Arabian Nights), which was a compilation of many earlier folk tales told by the Persian QueenScheherazade.
Poetic genres
1. Romantic poetry 2. Satirical poetry

Poetic themes

Madih, an eulogy or panegyric Hija, a lampoon or insult poem Ritha, an elegy Wasf, a descriptive poem Ghazal, a love poem, sometimes expressing love of home Khamriyyah, wine poetry Tardiyyah, hunt poetry Zuhdiyyah, homiletic poetry Fakhr, boasting Hamasa, war poetry

modern
Beginning in the 19th and early 20th centuries, as part of what is now called the renaissance or al-Nahda, The common theme in much of the new poetry was the use of the ghazal or love poem in praise of the poet's homeland. This was manifested either as a nationalism for the newly emerging nation states of the region or in a wider sense as an Arab nationalism emphasizing the unity of all Arab people

Arabic literature had contributions by thousands of figures, many of them are not only poets but are celebrates in other fields such as politicians, scientists and scholars among others

Arabic poetry
is categorized into two main types, rhymed, or measured, and prose, The rhymed poetry falls within fifteen different meters The meters of the rhythmical poetry are known in Arabic as "seas" In Arabic poetry each line (bayt; abyat) is divided into two halves (shatr; shatrayn). Metre (wazn) is based on the length of syllables rather than stress. A short syllable is a consonant followed by a short vowel. A long syllable is a vowelled letter followed by either an unvowelled consonant or a long vowel.
Below are metres commonly found in Arabic poetry, showing long () and short (^) syllables.

Rajaz (common in didactic poems): ^|^|^| ^|^|^| Hazaj (used in Rubayyat of Omar Khayyam): ^|^| ^|^|

Rhyme
RHYME (qafiya) is basically determined by the last consonant of a word. In rhyme-words nunation is dropped, as (sometimes) is the final vowel. Where the final vowel is fatha (short "a"), it must be used consistently each time the rhyme occurs - though kasra(short "i") and damma (short "u") and interchangeable

Arabic form of poetry

Islamic friendship poems.

his novel deals with powerful themes of freedom, based around the central hero Rajab Ismail who is subject to eleven years of extreme torture and is eventually made blind during the horrific ordeal. The novel marked the beginning of Munif's exploration of the Arabic wilderness in his novels with Munif's venture into the desert.

Abdul Rahman Munif

The winner of the 2010 Arabic Booker for his novel She Throws Sparks. (Or, if I must,She Spews Sparks as Big as Castles.) Writes Saleh: Khal portrays the atrocities perpetrated on the lives of the underprivileged people, the sheer violence exercised by the powerful on the weak.

Abdo Khal (1962present

The Women in Black

The Women in Black Once upon a time, in a busy shop In the land of tribes and ancient civilizations A little girl sat watching in silent resignation Grown-up women with shrouds of black

The Women in Black

Hidden and silent in isolation With a no-trespassing look They wandered around in simulation When a single woman appeared, suddenly, in the shop The little girl felt a sudden sensation Yes, the woman wore the black alright

Yet, she walked with determination Not cautious, fearful, or covered-up The woman moved as a distinct population She seemed to own the world She was such an inspiration Why would she be on her own? The little girl wondered?

Wasnt she afraid from reprimands or accusations? Looking that pretty in embroidered black, Defying the norms as if in a celebration Who gave her the money that shes spending Without a second thought or a hesitation?

Medieval Arab mechanical manuscript

Bayad plays the oud to the lady", Arabic manuscript for Qissat Bayad wa Reyad tale from late 12th century

Culture
Arab culture is a term that draws together the common themes and overtones found in the Arab countries, especially those of the MiddleEastern countries. This region's distinct religion, art, and food are some of the fundamental features that define Arab culture.

Art
Arabic Art includes a wide range or artistic components, it can be Arabic miniature, calligraphy or Arabesque

Medieval Arab mechanical manuscript

HUDA LUFTIS PAINTING

THE END
GOD BLESS!