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ADVANCE MATERIAL SCIENCE

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The Mars Rovers - Spirit and Opportunity

Spirit and Opportunity are made up of materials such as * Metals * Ceramics * Composites * Polymers * Semiconductors
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Most common elements in planet earths crust and atmosphere by weight percentage and volume

Element of the earths crust Oxygen (O) Silicon (Si) Aluminum (Al) Iron (Fe) Calcium (Ca) Sodium (Na) Potassium (K) Magnesium (Mg) Total Gas Nitrogen (N2) Oxygen (O2) Argon (Ar) Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Weight percentage 46.60 27.72 8.13 5.00 3.63 2.83 2.70 2.09 98.70 Percent of dry air by volume 78.08 20.95 0.93 0.03

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Diagram illustrating how materials science and engineering form a bridge of knowledge from the basic sciences to the engineering disciplines

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What are Materials?


Materials may be defined as substance of which something is composed or made. We obtain materials from earth crust and atmosphere.

Examples : Silicon and Iron constitute 27.72 and 5.00 percentage of weight of earths crust respectively. Nitrogen and Oxygen constitute 78.08 and 20.95 percentage of dry air by volume respectively.
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DEFINITIONS
Materials science: a scientific discipline that is primarily concerned with the search for basic knowledge about the internal structure, properties, and processing of materials. Materials engineering: an engineering discipline that is primarily concerned with the use of fundamental and applied knowledge of materials so that they can be converted into products needed or desired by society.

Metallic materials (metals and metal alloys): inorganic materials that are characterized by high thermal and electrical conductivities. Examples are iron, steel, aluminum, and copper.
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DEFINITIONS
Ferrous metals and alloys: metals and alloys that contain a large percentage of iron such as steels and cast irons. Nonferrous metals and alloys: metals and alloys that do not contain iron, or if they do contain iron, it is only in a relatively small percentage. Examples of nonferrous metals are aluminum, copper, zinc, titanium, and nickel. Ceramic materials: materials consisting of compounds of metals and nonmetals. Ceramic materials are usually hard and brittle. Examples are clay products, glass, and pure aluminum oxide that has been compacted and densified.
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DEFINITIONS
Polymeric materials: materials consisting of long molecular chains or networks of lowweight elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Most polymeric materials have low electrical conductivities. Examples are polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride (PVC).

Composite materials: materials that are mixtures of two or more materials. Examples are fiberglass-reinforcing material in a polyester or epoxy matrix. Electronic materials: materials used in electronics, especially microelectronics. Examples are silicon and gallium arsenide.
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Why the Study of Materials is Important?


Production and processing of materials constitute a large part of our economy. Engineers choose materials to suite design. New materials might be needed for some new applications. Example :- High temperature resistant materials. Space station and Mars Rovers should sustain conditions in space. * High speed, low temperature, strong but light. Modification of properties might be needed for some applications. Example :- Heat treatment to modify properties.

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Aircraft turbine engine (PW 4000) shown is made principally of metal alloys. Latest high-temperature, heat resistant, high-strength nickel-base alloys are used in this engine

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Plastic resin producers are developing ultrapure, high-flow grades of polycarbonate plastic for DVDs

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MATERIAL SCIENCE andENGINEERING Materials Science & Engineering


Materials science deals with basic knowledge about the internal structure, properties and processing of materials. Materials engineering deals with the application of knowledge gained by materials science to convert materials to products.
Materials Science Basic Knowledge of Materials Materials Science and Engineering Resultant Knowledge of Structure and Properties Materials Engineering Applied Knowledge of Materials

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TYPES OFof Materials Types MATERIALS


Metallic Materials
Composed of one or more metallic elements.
Example:- Iron, Copper, Aluminum.

Metallic element may combine with nonmetallic elements.


Example:- Silicon Carbide, Iron Oxide.

Inorganic and have crystalline structure. Good thermal and electric conductors.
Metals and Alloys

Ferrous Eg: Steel, Cast Iron 1-5

Nonferrous Eg:Copper Aluminum

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TYPES OF Materials MATERIALS Types of


Organic giant molecules and mostly noncrystalline. Some are mixtures of crystalline and noncrystalline regions. Poor conductors of electricity and hence used as insulators. Strength and ductility vary greatly. Low densities and decomposition temperatures. Examples :- Poly vinyl Chloride (PVC), Polyester. Applications :- Appliances, DVDs, Fabrics etc.

Polymeric (Plastic) Materials

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TYPES OF MATERIALS Types of Materials


Ceramic Materials
Metallic and nonmetallic elements are chemically bonded together. Inorganic but can be either crystalline, noncrystalline or mixture of both. High hardness, strength and wear resistance. Very good insulator. Hence used for furnace lining for heat treating and melting metals. Also used in space shuttle to insulate it during exit and reentry into atmosphere. Other applications : Abrasives, construction materials, utensils etc. Example:- Porcelain, Glass, Silicon nitride.
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Examples of a newly developed generation of engineered ceramic materials for advanced engine applications. The black items include engine valves, valve seat inserts, and piston pins made of silicon nitride. The white item is a port-manifold liner made of an alumina ceramic material

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High-performance ceramic ball bearings and races are made from titanium and carbon nitride feedstocks through power metal technology

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TYPES OF MATERIALS
Types of Materials

Composite Materials
Mixture of two or more materials. Consists of a filler material and a binding material. Materials only bond, will not dissolve in each other. Mainly two types :o Fibrous: Fibers in a matrix o Particulate: Particles in a matrix o Matrix can be metals, ceramic or polymer Examples : Fiber Glass ( Reinforcing material in a polyester or epoxy matrix) Concrete ( Gravels or steel rods reinforced in cement and sand) Applications:- Aircraft wings and engine, construction.

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Overview of the wide variety of composite parts used in the Air Forces C-17 transport

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TYPES OF of Materials Types MATERIALS


Electronic Materials
Not Major by volume but very important. Silicon is a common electronic material. Its electrical characteristics are changed by adding impurities. Examples:- Silicon chips, transistors Applications :- Computers, Integrated Circuits, Sattelites etc.

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Modern microprocessors have a multitude of outlets, as indicated on this picture of Intels Pentium II microprocessor

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COMPETITION AMONG MATERIALS


Competition Among Materials
Materials compete with each other to exist in new market
1600

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Example:1400 1200 1000 800 600 400

Over a period of time usage of different materials changes depending on cost and performance. New, cheaper or better materials replace the old materials when there is a breakthrough in technology

Aluminum Iron Plastic Steel

lb/Car

200 0 1985 1992 1997 Model Year

Figure 1.14

Predictions and use of materials in US automobiles.


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After J.G. Simon, Adv. Mat. & Proc., 133:63(1988) and new data

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Competition of six major materials produced in the United States on a weight (pound) basis. The rapid rise in the production of aluminum and polymers (plastics) is evident.

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Breakdown of weight percentages of major materials used in the average 1985 U.S. automobile.

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Shape-memory alloys used as a stent to expand narrowed arteries or support weakened ones

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FUTURE TRENDS
Future Trends

Metallic Materials
Production follows US economy closely. Alloys may be improved by better chemistry and process control. New aerospace alloys being constantly researched.
o Aim: To improve temperature and corrosion resistance. o Example: Nickel based high temperature super alloys.

New processing techniques are investigated.


o Aim: To improve product life and fatigue properties. o Example: Isothermal forging, Powder metallurgy.

Metals for biomedical applications


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FUTURE TRENDS
Future Trends

Polymeric (Plastic Materials)


Fastest growing basic material (9% per year). After 1995 growth rate decreased due to saturation. Different polymeric materials can be blend together to produce new plastic alloys. Search for new plastic continues.

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FUTURE TRENDS Future Trends


Ceramic Materials
New family of engineering ceramics are produced last decade New materials and applications are constantly found. Now used in Auto and Biomedical applications. Processing of ceramics is expensive. Easily damaged as they are highly brittle. Better processing techniques and high-impact ceramics are to be found.

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FUTURETrends Future TRENDS


Composite Materials
Fiber reinforced plastics are primary products. On an average 3% annual growth from 1981 to 1987. Annual growth rate of 5% is predicted for new composites such as FiberglassEpoxy and Graphite-Epoxy combinations. Commercial aircrafts are expected to use more and more composite materials.

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FUTURE TRENDS Future Trends


Electronic Materials
Use of electronic materials such as silicon increased rapidly from 1970. Electronic materials are expected to play vital role in Factories of Future. Use of computers and robots will increase resulting in extensive growth in use of electronic materials. Aluminum for interconnections in integrated circuits might be replaced by copper resulting in better conductivity.

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FUTURE TRENDS Future Trends


Smart Materials : Change their properties by
sensing external stimulus. Shape memory alloys: Strained material reverts back to its original shape above a critical temperature.
Used in heart valves and to expand arteries.

Piezoelectric materials: Produce electric field when

exposed to force and vice versa.


Used in actuators and vibration reducers.

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MEMS and NANOMATERIALS


MEMS and Nanomaterials MEMS: Microelectromechanical systems.
Miniature devices Micro-pumps, sensors

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Nanomaterials: Characteristic length < 100 nm


Examples: ceramics powder and grain size < 100 nm Nanomaterials are harder and stronger than bulk materials. Have biocompatible characteristics ( as in Zirconia) Transistors and diodes are developed on a nanowire.
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Case Study Material Selection


Problem: Select suitable material for bicycle frame and fork.
Steel and alloys Wood

Carbon fiber Aluminum Reinforced alloys plastic

Ti and Mg alloys

Low cost but Heavy. Less Corrosion resistance

Light and strong. But Cannot be shaped

Very light and Light, moderately Slightly better strong. No Strong. Corrosion Than Al corrosion. Resistance. alloys. But much Very expensive expensive expensive

Cost important? Select steel Properties important? Select CFRP SOURCE: SMITHMATERIALS