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Should Shouldnt

Function: giving advice


or suggestions in English

Should is a modal auxiliary that we use very frequently in English:


To

give advice or a recommendation:

Example:

That new restaurant downtown is great! You should try it. We also use should . . . To give our opinion about something.
To

say what we think is a good idea or the right thing to, do in our opinion.

*Should is not as strong as must or have to


Consider these examples . . . You should stop smoking. You must stop smoking.
(=it would be a good idea; this is my suggestion.)
(=it is necessary that you stop. You have to do it.)

The negative of should =


The contraction (short) form is often used with the negative, especially in spoken English:

The mother told her child: You shouldnt eat too much candy, or youll get sick.

Fill in the blanks

You should take some medicine. You _______ get some rest. should

You _______ drink some orange juice. should


You shouldnt go to work.
shouldnt You _______ go out in the cold. shouldnt You _______ eat too much junk food.

Should I call the doctor? Yes, you should.


______ I get some rest? Yes, you should. Should
Should I go out in the rain? No, you ______. shouldnt

Ought to is another way to say should; however should is more common.

Grammar:

Should and ought to are both


auxiliaries; remember this important rule . . .

Examples:
You should your money to buy a new house.
You ought to a separate savings account for the house you want to buy.
Mark shouldnt out to play with his friends. He has too much homework.

**Important note:

we dont usually use ought to in the negative; shouldnt is preferred.

1. Should and ought to are both used to give advice, suggestions, recommendations, or a persons opinion. They are NOT as strong as MUST or HAVE TO. 2. Should is more common than ought to.

Review:

Must Mustn't

Function:

subjective obligation

We often use must to say that something is essential or necessary, for example: I must go. Structure of Must Must is a modal auxiliary verb. It is followed by a main verb. The structure is: subject + must + main verb The main verb is the base verb (infinitive without "to"). Look at these examples: subject I You auxiliary must main verb must must go visit home. us.

We

must

stop

now.

Like all auxiliary verbs, must CANNOT be followed by to. So, we say: I must go now. (not *I must to go now.)

Use of Must In general, must expresses personal obligation. Must expresses what the speaker thinks is necessary. Must is subjective. Look at these examples: I must stop smoking. You must visit us soon. He must work harder.

In each of the above cases, the "obligation" is the opinion or idea of the person speaking. In fact, it is not a real obligation. It is not imposed from outside.

It is sometimes possible to use must for real obligation, for example a rule or a law. But generally we use have to for this. We can use must to talk about the present or the future. Look at these examples: I must go now. (present) I must call my mother tomorrow. (future) We cannot use must to talk about the past. We use to talk about the past.

Must not, Mustn't (prohibition) We use must not to say that something is not permitted or allowed, for example: Passengers must not talk to the driver. Structure of Must not Must is an auxiliary verb. It is followed by a main verb. The structure for must not is: subject + must not + main verb The main verb is the base verb (infinitive without "to").

Use of Must not Must not expresses prohibition - something that is not permitted, not allowed. The prohibition can be subjective (the speaker's opinion) or objective (a real law or rule). Look at these examples:

I mustn't eat so much sugar. (subjective) You mustn't watch so much television. (subjective) Students must not leave bicycles here. (objective) Policemen must not drink on duty. (objective)

We can use must not to talk about the present or the future: Visitors must not smoke. (present) I mustn't forget Tara's birthday. (future)
We cannot use must not to talk about the past. We use other structures to talk about the past, for example: We were not allowed to enter. I couldn't park outside the shop.