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RESEARCH DESIGNS

RESEARCH DESIGNS
Research Design- is the plan, structure and strategy of investigation so as to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance.

Research Design
A research design has following aspects; SAMPLING
What information? How it is to be gathered? Which source ?

Methods of data/information collection


Interview Observation

Analytical design

CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH DESIGNS


VARIABLE INDEPENDENCE VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLE EXTRANEOUS INDEPENDENT VARIABLE CONTROL RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

CONCEPTS IN RESEARCH DESIGNS


EXPERIMENTAL / NON-EXPERIMENTAL HYPOTHESES TESTING RESEARCH EXPERIMENTAL GROUP CONTROL GROUP EXPERIMENT-ABSOLUTE/COMPARATIVE TEST UNITS

Target Group Can Dictate Design...


Demographics/Life stage/lifestyle Age, Sex, SEC, Working status, Occupation, Education Joint, nuclear, single, couple, infant, kids Eating out/travel abroad/have sports car
Recent, lapsed, potential, regular/ occasional, heavy/light E.g. Health conscious, Tech savvy E.g. Aware of brand, seen advt...

Usage characteristics Attitudinal Awareness

A Classification of Research Designs


Research Design
Exploratory Research Design Conclusive Research Design Descriptive Research Cross-Sectional Design Single CrossSectional Design Causal Research

Longitudinal Design

Multiple CrossSectional Design

Exploratory Research
Searching for Hypothesis Methods include:
Secondary data Experts opinion In-depth Discussions Case studies Observation

DESCRITIVE DESIGNS
CROSS SECTIONAL Conducted on large sample One time study Present state Simple/multiple longitudinal Conducted on a limited select sample Setting neutral Adequate exposure Information collected after a fixed interval

Cross-Sectional Data May Not Show Change


Brand Purchased Time Period Period 1 Survey Brand A Brand B Brand C Total 200 300 500 1000 Period 2 Survey 200 300 500 1000

Longitudinal Data May Show Substantial Change


Brand Purchased in Period 1
Brand A Brand B Brand C Total

Brand Purchased in Period 2


Brand A 100 25 75 200 Brand B 50 100 150 300 Brand C 50 175 275 500 Total 200 300 500 1000

Conclusive Research
To test a hypothesis Methods include:
Descriptive research
Statistical :
Cross-sectional Time series Longitudinal

Case studies

Experimental research
Designs of Experiments

PRE- EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS


ASSOCIATION HYPOTHESES NON EXPERIMENTAL HYPOTHESES TESTING RESEARCH RANDOMIZATION NOT POSSIBLE NO CONTROL ON E.I.V.s

AFTER ONLY STUDY


SELF SELECTION BY SAMPLE NO PRETEST TREATMENT EFFECT: X O ( X-I.V. & O-D.V. ) Limitations No pretest Untrained? I.V.not controlled

ONE GROUP PRETESTPOST TEST


SELF SELECTION PRETEST PROVISION TREATMENT : O X O TREATMENT EFFECT: O - O & X Limitation Testing effect Economic conditions?

STATIC GROUP COMPARISON DESIGN


EXPOST FACTO E.G.&C.G. I.V.-D.V. X E.G. O No X C.G. O TREATMENT EFFECT: O-O & X

TRUE-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS(Simple)
I.V IS CONTROLLED E.I.V. IS REGULATED EIV- History Maturation Mortality Testing effect Instrument effect

PRETEST-POSTTEST CONTROL GROUP DESIGN


I.V.-D.V. Randomization possible Exptl. Hypotheses testing research Causal hypotheses Financial Constraints Time Constraints(time lag)

PRETEST-POSTTEST CONTROL GROUP DESIGN


Diagrammatically: E.G.-- R O X O C.G.--R O O Treatment effect= ( O - O ) - ( O - O )
Method of Analysis:Simple Regression Disadvantage:Testing effect

POST TEST ONLY CONTROL GROUP DESIGN


I.V.-D.V. /RANDOMIZATION POSSIBLE CAUSAL HYPOTHESES FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS URGENCY TO SOLUTIONS DIAG: E.G.--R X O C.G--R O Treatment effect:O - O(SimpleRegression)

RANDOMIZED GROUP DESIGN


I.V.-DIFFERENT LEVELS----D.V. RANDOMIZATION FIELD EXPERIMENT NO E.I.V. IDENTIFIED Method of analysis:ONE-WAY ANOVA

RANDOMIZED GROUP DESIGN


TREATMENT LEVEL High Med Low Xn
Xn Xn X

Xn
Xn Xn X

Xn
Xn Xn X

RANDOMIZED BLOCK DESIGN


I.V.-Different levels-D.V.

1 E.I.V.-Different levels
FIELD EXPERIMENT Method of analysis:TWO-WAY ANOVA

RANDOMIZED BLOCK DESIGN


TREATMENT LEVELS B High Med Low L uns Xn Xn Xn O Xn Xn Xn C sem. Xn Xn Xn K Xn Xn Xn S skil. Xn Xn Xn Xn Xn Xn 1st numeral-block;2nd numeral-level

LATIN SQUARE DESIGN


I.V.-Different levels-D.V. 2 E.I.V.s Rotation of treatment between the two E.I.V.s Method of Analysis:THREE -WAY ANOVA

LATIN SQUARE DESIGN


ORGANISATION

P R O F

bank ccard mres restate engineer A B C D eco. B A D C arts C D A B science D C B A

FACTORIAL DESIGN
2 I.V. -Different levels---1 D.V. FIELD EXPERIMENT CAUSAL HYPOTHESES Mix of Simple and Complex design Method of Analysis : Main effect :Two-way ANOVA Interaction effect :Line of best fit

FACTORIAL DESIGN
UNIT PRODUCTION W 1-2 3-4 5-6 A 3 Rs. A B C G E I 4 Rs. D E F N C E. 5 Rs. G H I

You are employed by the Tarai foods ltd. by their product manager who wants to know what should be the ideal price differential( RS.2.50;3.00; 3.50) between their frozen vegetables and those marketed by Mother Diary. The clientele for the frozen vegetables is mostly working women.

Identify your variables, test units, hypotheses, and the research design diagrammatically and state the method of analysis.

You are a research executive with a university offering a number of post-graduate courses like M.Com, MCA, MBA etc. Though any kind of educational qualification enhances ones personality. You believe that the two-year MBA program offered by the university has a slow and steady significant on the personality development (especially in terms of introversion/extroversion) of the students. Identify your variables, hypotheses and test units. What is your research design, represent it diagrammatically and state your method of analysis.

You are the HRD manager with ABB (India). ABB has recently taken over a major unit in Calcutta .You are sent on a posting there and are given the task of introducing a new operation scheme which your Parent organization feels will improve the efficiency there. But you perceive during your stay that there is an underlying dissatisfaction amongst the employees and it is essential to gauge their view and opinion of the takeover and their expectations before introducing the scheme. Identify your variables, hypotheses and test units. What is your research design, represent it diagrammatically and state your m e t h o d o f a n a l y s i s .