You are on page 1of 24

Chapter 2:

Troubleshooting Processes for Complex

Enterprise Networks

CCNP TSHOOT: Maintaining and Troubleshooting IP Networks

Course v6 Chapter #

1 © 2007 – 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public
1
© 2007 – 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Public

Chapter 2 Objectives

  • Identify troubleshooting principles and evaluate troubleshooting methodologies.

  • Plan and implement troubleshooting procedures as part of a

structured troubleshooting methodology.

  • Plan and implement troubleshooting and network maintenance procedures to effectively support each other.

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

2

Troubleshooting Methodologies

Flow chart of a structured troubleshooting approach

Troubleshooting Methodologies Flow chart of a structured troubleshooting approach Chapter # © 2007 – 2010, Cisco

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

3

Troubleshooting Methodologies

Shoot from the hip vs. structured troubleshooting method

Troubleshooting Methodologies Shoot from the hip vs. structured troubleshooting method Chapter # © 2007 – 2010,

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

4

Troubleshooting Approaches

  • Top-down

  • Bottom-up

  • Divide and conquer

  • Follow-the-path

  • Spot the differences

  • Move the problem

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

5

Troubleshooting Approaches - Spot the

Differences Example

  • Branch1 is in good working order

Branch1# show ip route <output omitted> 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets

  • C 10.132.125.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet4

  • C 192.168.36.0/24 is directly connected, BVI1

S*

0.0.0.0/0 [254/0] via 10.132.125.1

  • Branch2 has connectivity problems

Branch2# show ip route <output omitted> 10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets

  • C 10.132.126.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet4

  • C 192.168.37.0/24 is directly connected, BVI1

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

6

Troubleshooting Approaches - Move the

Problem Example

Laptop B is having network problems. Cable or port swapping can help isolate the problem.

Troubleshooting Approaches - Move the Problem Example Laptop B is having network problems. Cable or port

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

7

Implementing Troubleshooting Procedures

  • Defining the problem

  • Gathering information

  • Analyzing the information

  • Eliminating possible problem causes

  • Formulating a hypothesis about the likely cause of the problem

  • Testing that hypothesis

  • Solving the problem

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

8

The Troubleshooting Process Verify and Define the Problem

The Troubleshooting Process – Verify and Define the Problem Chapter # © 2007 – 2010, Cisco

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

9

The Troubleshooting Process Gather Information

The Troubleshooting Process – Gather Information Chapter # © 2007 – 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

10

The Troubleshooting Process Analyze

The Troubleshooting Process – Analyze Chapter # © 2007 – 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

11

The Troubleshooting Process Eliminate

The Troubleshooting Process – Eliminate Chapter # © 2007 – 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

12

The Troubleshooting Process Propose Hypothesis

The Troubleshooting Process – Propose Hypothesis Chapter # © 2007 – 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

13

The Troubleshooting Process Test Hypothesis

The Troubleshooting Process – Test Hypothesis Chapter # © 2007 – 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

14

The Troubleshooting Process Solve Problem

The Troubleshooting Process – Solve Problem Chapter # © 2007 – 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

15

The Troubleshooting and Network Maintenance

The Troubleshooting and Network Maintenance Chapter # © 2007 – 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

16

The Troubleshooting and Network Maintenance Cont.

  • Accurate documentation is critical to effective troubleshooting.

  • A network baseline is essential and can include: Interface load for critical network links (IOS) CPU load and memory usage of routers and switches (SNMP) Accounting of network traffic (NBAR, NetFlow) Measurement of network performance characteristics (IP SLA)

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

17

Communication and Change Control

Communication plays a role in all phases of structured troubleshooting.

Communication and Change Control Communication plays a role in all phases of structured troubleshooting. Chapter #

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

18

Communication and Change Control Cont.

  • Change control is a fundamental process in network maintenance.

  • Controls when changes are made, authorization required and what actions are taken.

  • Can reduce unplanned outages and increase network uptime.

  • The change control process:

Implement the change

Verify that it achieved the desired results

Roll back if necessary

Back up the changed configurations or software Document/communicate your changes

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

19

Disaster Recovery Tools

  • Successful disaster recovery is dependent on the existence of the following: Up to date configuration backups Up to date software backups Up to date hardware inventories and documentation Configuration and software provisioning tools

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

20

Chapter 2 Summary

  • The fundamental elements of a troubleshooting process: Gathering of information and symptoms Analyzing information Eliminating possible causes Formulating a hypothesis Testing the hypothesis

  • Some commonly used troubleshooting approaches are: Top-down Bottom-up Divide-and-conquer Follow-the-path Spot the differences Move the problem

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

21

Chapter 2 Summary Cont.

  • Useful data to gather and create a network baseline are:

Basic performance statistics using show commands Accounting of network traffic using RMON, NBAR, or NetFlow statistics Measurements of network performance characteristics using the IP SLA feature in IOS

  • Communication is an essential part of the troubleshooting process and happens in all stages of troubleshooting: Report the problem Gather information Analyze and eliminate possible causes Propose and test a hypothesis Solve the problem

  • Change control is one of the most fundamental processes in network maintenance.

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

22

Chapter 2 Labs

  • There are no labs for this chapter.

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

23

Chapter # © 2007 – 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 24

Chapter #

© 2007 2010, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

24