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An Introduction to Component reuse: conceptual foundations and its applications in the metamodelling based system analysis and design environment
Zheying Zhang Research seminar on Software Business 5/2/2003

University of Jyvskyl

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Outline

Introduction Background and terminologies Current situation of the reuse support in ISD Research questions Research methodology Thesis structure and a short summary of each chapter Conclusion and discussions

University of Jyvskyl

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Introduction

Zheying Zhang
Researcher in metaPHOR research group since 1997 Researcher in RAMSES project (1/1999-4/2000) Licentiate thesis accepted in 9/2001 Researcher in SB program since 11/2001 Research Dissertation is going to be ready in 2003 Assistant professor since 1/2003 Teaching Thesis supervising Research and dissertation work
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University of Jyvskyl

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MetaPHOR research group


Metamodeling, Principles, Hypertext, Objects and Repositories (http://metaphor.it.jyu.fi) Two experimental and commercial metaCASE tools: MetaEdit & MetaEdit+ Research topics
Application principles, tool architectures and technical solutions for configurable metaCASE environments Investigate, analyze and understand the evolution of knowledge and knowledge representations Hypertext and traceability support in systems development, process support and enactment environments Reuse of software and design artifacts both at the design and metadesign levels Visual and 3D user interfaces and their modeling in CASE

University of Jyvskyl

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RAMSES project

RAMSES stands for Reuse in Advanced Method Support EnvironmentS. Goals


Building theoretical background on component reuse Engineering the principles for component definition, search, management and retrieval Building the automated tools support for component reuse and field testing

Founded by Tekes, National Technology Agency, metaCASE consulting, and Nokia Mobile Phone.

University of Jyvskyl

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Licentiate Thesis - Research questions

Title: Component-based reuse in a metaCASE environment Theoretical foundation of RAMSES project Research questions
Q1: How can we define a conceptual framework that supports systematic reuse in a metaCASE environment? Q2: What is the generic model of reusable components in a metaCASE environment? Q3: What is the needed functionality of an integrated metaCASE environment that supports systematic reuse?

University of Jyvskyl

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Licentiate Thesis - Contents


Chp1 Introduction -- Q1 Chp2 Conceptual frameworks for systematic reuse in a metaCASE environment -- Q1
A framework for component reuse in a metamodelling based system development -- REJ 6(2), 2001

Chp3 Component 3C model expanded from (Tracz 1990) Q2


Defining components in a metacase environment CAiSE*00

Chp4 Prototype of component 3C model and its application in system analysis and design Q2&3
Using component for system analysis and design in a metaCASE environment -- working paper

Chp5 prototype of component search tool in MetaEdit+ -- Q3


Enhance component reuse by using search techniques -- IRIS23

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Dissertation - Plan

Further study the component model


Specifying the context aspect of the component model

Empirically study
The usability and influence of the component functionality on the system analysis and design phases of the product development life cycle

Validate and refine the concept and content aspects of the component model on component functionality in MetaEdit+

University of Jyvskyl

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Dissertation - Title

Component Reuse
Conceptual Foundations and its Applications in the Metamodelling based System Analysis and Design Environment

University of Jyvskyl

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Licentiate thesis requirements


Capability to formulate and solve a scientific problem Communicate it in a style which is acceptable Length 80-200 pages normally three articles and an introduction

-- Licentiate seminar 1998, Kalle Lyytinen

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PhD thesis requirements


Sufficient scholarly contribution to the scientific knowledge Authors skills in using scientific research methods Communicate the results in a manner which is acceptable within the scientific community Size: 4-6 articles or 120-300 pages Capability to show independent contribution
Some articles must be written alone (minimum 2) Unified theme Committee proof by refereed publications
-- Licentiate seminar 1998, Kalle Lyytinen

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PhD thesis work

Management of PhD work through Thesis Proposal


Guides your own work Communicates others what you want to achieve (sponsors, colleagues, supervisor) Serves as a contract between you and your supervisor

-- Licentiate seminar 1998, Kalle Lyytinen

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PhD proposal

Incremental refinement, proposal must be finished within the first 2-3 years Continually revised Not the same as starting from scratch several times Good proposal is your best help in achieving your goal

-- Licentiate seminar 1998, Kalle Lyytinen

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PhD proposal structure (Davis & Parker)


Summary Problem, hypothesis or question Importance of the topic Prior research to the topic Research approach / methodology Limitations / key assumptions Expected contribution to knowledge Content outline
-- Licentiate seminar 1998, Kalle Lyytinen
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Outline

Introduction Background and terminologies Current situation of the reuse support in ISD Research questions Research methodology Thesis structure and a short summary of each chapter Conclusion and discussions

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Basic Concepts

Information system development (ISD) CASE and metaCASE tools Component based systems engineering (CBSE) Reuse in ISD

University of Jyvskyl

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How can we think of systems development?

It is the change process covering


the real world: field of phenomena conceptualizations of the real world: conceptual structure descriptions of the conceptualizations: a description language

TS

Mapping
Implementation

Reverse

Conceptulization

in order to represent
target systems in a complete and unambiguous way.

FOD

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How can we think of systems development? (Cont.)

Notion
Reality Conceptual structure

Example
A real XYZ inventory system Ideas of material flows, information flows and their interactions Work-flow notation (or ER, DFD, UML notation) Representation of XYZ inventory system in a work-flow notation

Description language
Target systems

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Information Systems Development (ISD)

Information system development is a change process taken with respect to a number of object systems in set of environments by a development group to achieve or maintain some objectives held by some stakeholders.
-- (Lyytinen 1987)

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Object systems
Identify a target of change Arbitrary boundary set by purpose and objectives

Change process
A set of development activities A procedure, possibly with a prescribed notation, perform the change process (development activity) (Brinkkemper 1996) Combined techniques form an approach to performing an ISD project, called a method

Environment
A web of conditions and factors which surround development processes and affect the development group and its change process, including labor, economy, technology/infrastracture, normative, stakeholders

Development group
Formally organized group with mutual expectations, punishments and rewards, positions, roles, authority, or responsibility

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Objectives
intensions in systems development: What is good, how one should behave

Stakeholders
can set claims about the object systems and their properties driven by specific interests and goals can be grouped as Internal stakeholders (users, management, organizational units) External stakeholders (clients, government bodies, professional associations, computer manufactures, software house, etc.)

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Information systems development method

Definition
Information systems development method is an organized collection of concepts, beliefs, values, and normative principles (knowledge) supported by material resources to carry out changes in object systems in an effective and systematic manner (Lyytinen 1987).

Purpose
To enable / support change processes Achieve some process goals or product goals set by the stakeholders

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Use of methods and ISD life-cycle

Business process re-engineering and development


business modeling, process modeling, work flow modeling, task structure

Requirements engineering
brain-storming, interviews, requirements analysis methods, requirements review methods

System analysis and design


data modeling, structured analysis and design, OO analysis and design

Construction
mapping from high level language to machine language, version control

Operation and maintenance


Version control, configuration management, reverse engineering

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Basic Concepts

Information system development (ISD) CASE and metaCASE tools Component based systems engineering (CBSE) Reuse in ISD

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CASE - an acronym with many interpretations ...


Computer

Assisted Aided Automated

Engineering Software [Software] System [Information] Systems

CASE is use of computer-based support in the software development process (SEI, 1996)

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What is a CASE tool?

CASE tool supports several fixed conceptual structures (system description languages) (and associated processes and validity criteria) A CASE tool is a software environment that assists systems analysts and designers in specifying, analyzing, designing and maintaining an information system. (Loucopoulos, 1992)

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The emergence of CASE technology

CASE tool is
a stand-alone tool to help automate program diagramming and documentation (early 80s) including automatic checks of designs (mid 80s) an integrated environment for a model editor, a document generator, a code generator, and repository

CASE tool automates time-consuming aspect of the systems development process including
drawing diagrams cross-checking of concepts across the system models generating system documents, code structure, and database schemas

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Tool support for models

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Models and visual modeling


A model is a representation of the conceptualization of the real world A model is a representation of your problem domain and software system A model contains classes, logical packages, objects, operations, component packages, components, processors, devices, and the relationships between them A model also contains diagrams and specifications Visual modeling gives you a graphical representation of the structure and interrelationships of a system by constructing models of your design

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Example CASE tool

MetaEdit+ offers CASE tool support for the defined method. It provides diagramming editors, browsers, generators, multi-user support, etc

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CASE tool Use

Organizations in a rapid changing market requires CASE tools can


flexibly create and modify the conceptual structure Hardly any project applies OMT as Rumbaugh et al. originally defined In practice 88% methods are always customized for local needs (Hardy et al.) be used in specific application domains

When the conceptual structures can be modified easily we talk of metaCASE tool

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Meta

Meta (Greek), X about x X behind x meta-level techniques support abstract principles behind certain phenomena

MetaCASE

MetaCASE is an area of CASE, in which information system development method support is generated from metamodels

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What is a metaCASE tool?

A metaCASE tool is software tool that supports the design and generation of CASE tools A metaCASE tool facilitates the design and specification of a method whose full and formal definition is not readily available. Design and specification of a method method engineering

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Tool support for metamodels

Metamodels are conceptual models of methods (Brinkkemper 1990) Metamodels can be roughly divided into process and product models
Meta-process model: conceptualization, formalization and abstraction of modelling process e.g. DFD, AD Meta-data model: conceptualization, formalization and abstraction of representations or concepts involved in methods e.g. ERD, CD

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Metamodelling

Metamodelling is the process of specifying a metamodel using a metamodelling language Method engineering is a metamodelling process to specify and integrate a method into a metamodel from the perspectives of concepts, properties, rules, and generators.

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Model and metamodel

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Modeling and metamodeling

Metamodellin g language

Modelling language

Metamodelling and modeling in a metaCASE environment (after (Brinkkemper 1990))

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What is a metaCASE tool? - Example


MetaEdit+ Method workbench is a tool for designing your method; its concepts, rules, notations and generators. The method definition is stored as a metamodel to the MetaEdit+ repository.

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What is a metaCASE environment?


MetaEdit+ metaCASE tool allows you to design your method and use it.

MetaCASE environment is a system which supports metamodeling in the same environment as modelling, and itself produces the metamodel and inputs it to the metaCASE tools.
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Basic Concepts

Information system development (ISD) CASE and metaCASE tools Component based systems engineering (CBSE) Reuse in ISD

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Why component?

Essential techniques for managing system complexity modularity and separation of concerns Increased understanding and awareness of distributed computing and movement from mainframe-based systems toward client/server computing have fuelled that ISD is a set of separable, interacting sub-systems development rather than monolithic

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Why component? business objectives

Changes in business requirements


Make the most of what you have Integrated business processes Exploit new opportunities Electronic commerce, E-business Build for change Flexible information systems

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Why component? technology trends

Systems are not build from scratch or standalone


Application assembly and extension

New technology are appearing all the time


Technology independency

Systems are constructed from many pieces


Component design focus

The resulting distributed systems are complex


Architecture visualization

Advance in application architecture


Mainframe client/server internet/network

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What is a component?

A constituent part Merriam-Webster online A software component is a unit of composition with contractually specified interfaces and explicit context dependencies only. A software component can be deployed independently and is subject to composition by third parties. -- (Szyperski, 1998)

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Characteristics of component

Packaging perspective - reuse


A component as the unit of packaging, distribution, or delivery

Service perspective - interface


A component as the provider of services

Integrity perspective - replacement


A component as a data integrity or encapsulation boundary
-- Sterling software (Short 1997)

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Component based development


Emerged in 1990 as a reuse-based approach Motivation: OO development had not led to extensive reuse as originally suggested Component based development
A software development approach where all aspects and phases of the development lifecycle, including requirements analysis, architecture, design, construction, testing, deployment, the supporting technical infrastructure, and the project management are based on components.

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CBD Activities and Artifacts

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Scope of component-based design and techniques

(Sterling Software, 1999)


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Component based systems engineering (CBSE)

CBSE is a process that emphasizes the design and construction of systems using reusable components CBSE is changing the way large systems are developed. CBSE embodies the buy, do not build philosophy espoused by some engineers CBSE shifts the emphasis from programming to composing IS Implementation has given way to integration as the focus The foundation of CBSE is the assumption that there is sufficient commonality in many large IS to justify developing reusable components to exploit and satisfy that commonality

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Basic Concepts

Information system development (ISD) CASE and metaCASE tools Component based systems engineering (CBSE) Reuse in ISD

University of Jyvskyl

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Software reuse

In most engineering disciplines, systems are designed by composing existing components that have been used in other systems Software engineering has been more focused on original development but it is now recognized that to achieve better software, more quickly and at lower cost, we need to adapt a design process that is based on systematic reuse

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Reuse past and present

Reuse is both an old and a new idea. Programmers have reused ideas, abstractions and processes since the earliest days of computing First introduced by McIlroy in 1968 to solve the problem of software crisis (McIlroy 1969) (Krueger 1992) The early approach to reuse is ad hoc. Today, complex, high quality information systems must be built in very short time periods. This mitigates towards a more organized approach to reuse.

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What is reuse?

Reuse use again after processing -Webster Reuse in ISD starts from software reuse, which applies existing software and design artifacts to deliver new applications, or to maintain the old ones Reusable asset A collection of related software work products that may be reused from one application to another

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Features of reuse

Is a long-term strategy Is driven by business decisions Must be integrated in the software/system development process reuse adoption is part of process improvement Is an investment Strongly depends on organization structure and, ultimately on people Is more effective within a domain

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Benefits of reuse

Increased reliability
Components exercised in working systems

Reduce process risk


Less uncertainty in development costs

Effective use of specialists


Reuse components instead of people

Standards compliance
Embed standards in reusable components

Accelerated development
Avoid original development and hence speed-up production

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Type of reuse

Ad-hoc reuse
No plan, no defined process

Opportunistic reuse
No standard process The software developer identifies the need and browse the repository to find the needed assets

Systematic reuse
Well-planned, cost-effective, and productive The purposeful creation, management, support, and reuse of assets (Jacobson et al. 1997) Requires long-term management support and years of investment

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Levels of reuse

Specification
e.g. Spec. documents, project plans

Design
e.g. design patterns, domain models Less implementation, portable and reusable, provide greater savings

Code
e.g. class libraries, functional units performing business tasks

Test
e.g. test cases and data Results in more reliable system

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Reusable assets

Off-the-shelf (COTS)
Assets identified as being of potential interest, which may come from a variety of local and remote sources, selected or concerned at the requirements analysis stage

Qualified
Assets assessed by software engineers to ensure that not only functionality, but also performance, reliability, usability, and other quality factors conform to the requirements of the system/product to be built

Adapted
Assets adapted to modify (wrapping) unwanted or undesired characteristics

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Reusable assets (Cont.)

Assembled
Assets integrated into an architectural style and interconnected with an appropriate system infrastructure that allows the assets to be coordinated and managed effectively.

Updated
Replacing existing software as new versions of assets become available

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Outline

Introduction Background and terminologies Current situation of the reuse support in ISD Research questions Research methodology Thesis structure and a short summary of each chapter Conclusion and discussions

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Current situation, related research and research problems


Reuse technology current reuse support in ISD Current tools support for component reuse Research problems

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Current reuse support in ISD

A technique supporting reuse may consist of both developing for reuse and developing with reuse
e.g. product line engineering

Reuse techniques
Object oriented techniques Design patterns Application frameworks Agent-based systems Architectures Domain-specific modeling Component-based development
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Comparison of reuse techniques (part)


Strength OOT Design patterns Frameworks
Enhances modularity and information hiding Facilitate retrieval of design solutions, provide guidelines for the development process Domain specific semi-complete applications to be customized Highly customizable and adaptable, allow easy reconfiguration of complex system properties. Simplify the reuse of technical and business objects

Weakness
Requires significant modeling effort Implementation from scratch

Requires high expertise and deep understanding of the framework design Not yet mature and consolidated technology No guidance for choosing the right architecture

Software Agents

Architectures Allow formal verification of structural

-- (Ezran, 1998)
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Domain-specific modeling (DSM)

Domain - a problem space for a family of applications with similar requirements, a set of related systems with commonality DSM - the process to understand the customers requirements within the domain and represent the requirements in the form of logical models (Sodhi and Sodhi 1998) DSM allows developers to concentrate on the required functionality and shift the focus from code to design

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DSM environment

DSM environment consists of


Domain-specific modeling language operates on domain concepts, not on code limited variation space Domain-specific code generator generates products described by the models variation for output formats Domain framework supports code generation primitive services and components on top of the platform

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Benefits of DSM

Captures domain knowledge (as opposed to code)


Uses domain abstractions Applies domain concepts and rules as modeling constructs Narrow down the design space Focus on single range of products

Benefits
Apply familiar terminology Solve the RIGHT problems! Solve problems only ONCE! model-driven reuse

Faster development of quality products!


--- MetaCASE Consulting, 2001
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Modeling domain vs. modeling code


Domain Idea Solve problem in domain terms
Map to code, implement Assembler

Finished Product

Map to code, implement


Generate, Add bodies Map to UML

Code

UML Model

No map!

Domain Model

Generate calls to components

Components

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--- MetaCASE Consulting, 2001 67

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Summary of DSM

Expected benefits
make a product family explicit leverage the knowledge of the family to help developers substantially increase the speed of variant creation ensure that the family approach is followed de facto The amount of expert resources needed to build and maintain a DSM does not grow with the size of product family and/or number of developers

Problems
Organizational changes (introduction, diffusion)

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Component-based development
A software development approach where all aspects and phases of the development lifecycle, including requirements analysis, architecture, design, construction, testing, deployment, the supporting technical infrastructure, and the project management are based on components.

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Why component based development


Reuse Deal with change Manage complexity Create commerce in component


-- (SEI, 2002)

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Why component based development Reuse

Expected benefits
The rewards of theft over honest toil (Will Tracz)

Problems
It is not as easy as it sounds Planned component reuse never seems to happen Cost of developing reusable components requires an asset be reused 2.5 times to recover the added cost Sound modest, but it was not happening Lots of organizational/cultural resistance We know what we want, we can do it better Well spend all our time trying to figure out how to use it
-- (SEI, 2002)

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Why component based development Dealing with change

Expected benefits
Component leads to linear cost of change i.e., requirements become modular by virtue of components

Problems
It is not as easy as it sounds Component are not as modular as they seem they interact i.e. are co-dependent Interface languages are not expressive enough to hide all the properties that might be sources of dependency
-- (SEI, 2002)

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Why component based development Managing complexity

Expected benefits
Components hide complexity for distribution (i.e. black boxes)

Problems
It is not as easy as it sounds Complex component functionality (feature-richness) still leads to complex interfaces Interface languages are not expressive enough, so hidden properties accumulate and lead to unanticipated interactions

-- (SEI, 2002)

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Why component based development Commerce of components

Expected benefits
Shorten design-to-production cycles Provide current technology solutions

Problems
Be careful for what you wish The market yields components that are Complex Idiosyncratic Unstable -- (SEI, 2002) See previous two slides

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Systematic reuse obstacles - nontechnical

Organizational
One project at a time Managerial Attitude: fear and mistrust Lack of knowledge

Business
Reuse takes capital and founding

Psychological
Cognitive barriers Notations and representations

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Systematic reuse obstacles - technical

Engineering
Lack of suitable component Lack of flexibility in potentially reusable components Lack of tools Lack of standard Cognitive barriers

Process support

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Current situation, related research and research problems


Reuse technology current reuse support in ISD Current tools support for component reuse Research problem definition

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Reuse supported tools

Many tools on the market with slogans to support CBD and thereby reuse Most of the tools support enterprise modeling, code generation, and round-trip engineering We analyze 6 typical commercial tools in COMBO project: MetaEdit+, ObjectiF, Paradigm Plus, Rose 98, Select Family, Together Solo

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Results of tool survey

We can obtain some insights into the various ways in which technologies support reuse But it still lacks an integrated reuse environment and an approach to systematic reuse
Limited understanding of reusable assets/components Insufficient support for systematic reuse Limited modeling technique support

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Result 1: Limited understanding of reusable assets/components


Most tools regard only code as a reusable asset Reusing design artifacts at stages earlier than implementation has greater potential leverage because of their greater expressive power Reusing design artifacts at stages earlier than implementation can further trigger code reuse

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Result 2: Insufficient support for systematic reuse


Current reuse support tools are mainly subject to ad hoc/opportunistic reuse Most tools support CBD which can bring benefits to reuse, but none takes reuse as their mission The supporting tools should have a generic framework to guide the systematic reuse process:
Reusable assets creation process domain analysis and modeling, component development, and asset evolution Reusable assets management process asset acquisition, asset cataloging, asset metrics collection, and library operations such as library support procedures, library access control, configuration management, as well as reuse promotion Reusable assets utilization process asset requirement determination, asset selection, adaptation, and integration

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Result 3: Limited modeling technique support

Most tools lacks method engineering support and only provide limited notations (e.g. UML) for system modeling 88% (Hardy, Thompson et al. 1995; Russo and Wynekoop 1995) of the organizations adapt the methodin-house, and 38% (Hardy, Thompson et al. 1995) of organizations have developed their own method Lacks data transmission support between tools

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Summary of tool survey

Most tools cannot provide an ideal environment that facilitates systematic reuse processes throughout the ISD lifecycle, and lack flexible support for various system development methods One solution is to expand the functionality of current metaCASE environments by adding systematic reuse support The metaCASE environment can be further tailored for a specific application domain to support reuse in a product family

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Current situation, related research and research problems


Reuse technology current reuse support in ISD Current tools support for component reuse Research problem definition

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Research problems

The dissertation aims towards a metaCASE environment, which would support systematic reuse in both the method engineering and systems engineering process. Q1: How can we utilize different reuse techniques and define a conceptual framework that supports systematic reuse in a metaCASE environment? Q2: What is the generic model of reusable components in a metaCASE environment? Q3: What is the needed functionality of an integrated metaCASE environment that supports systematic reuse?

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Research environment

MetaEdit+ - an industry strength metaCASE environment MetaEdit+ provides tools for


environment management model editing repository browser and method workbench

Systematic reuse support is insufficient in MetaEdit+ Component is not clearly defined in both metamodelling level and model level, which hinders systematic reuse.

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Outline

Introduction Background and terminologies Current situation of the reuse support in ISD Research questions Research methodology Thesis structure and a short summary of each chapter Conclusion and discussions

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Multi-methodological research approach

Theory building
development of new ideas and concepts, and construction of conceptual frameworks, new methods, or models

Experimentation
research strategies such as laboratory and field experiments

Observation
empirical methodologies such as case studies, field studies, and sample surveys that are unobtrusive research tasks

System development
constructive process consisting of stages like concept design, constructing the architecture of the system, prototyping, product development, and technology transfer
-- (Nunamaker and Chen 1991)

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Theory building
Conceptual frameworks Mathematic models Methods

Program

System Development
Prototyping, Product development, Technology Transfer

Observation
Case studies, Survey studies, Field studies

Experimentation
Field experiments Lab experiments

-- A Multi-Methodological Approach to Research Work (Nunamaker and Chen 1991)


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Observation

Provides an overview of the state of the art


Interviews by RAMSES project Survey of (meta)CASE Tools by COMBO student project

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Theory building

A systematic reuse architecture in the metaCASE environment


studies the reuse possibilities and types of reuse from both metamodelling (method construction) and modeling (system development) aspects

A complete reuse activities in a reuse framework A 3C component model

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Systems development

Prototype of component construction


Component definition tool

Prototype of component retrieval


Component search tool Component library

Prototype of component integration


Component integrated into a domain specific design architecture (defined in experiment case)

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Experiments

A laboratory experiment has been carried out to study the usability of components in metamodelling supported system analysis and design environment Testing case: user interface design of certain functions of a mobile phone The experimental metaCASE environment is MetaEdit+

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Experiments (Cont.)
Selecting a tool and a testing case Developing the testing case by using the selected tool
Preparing for a testing case

Experiment design

Pilot study
Designing the experiment

Recruiting and training participants

Conducting the experiment and analyzing data

Conducting the experiment

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Outline

Introduction Background and terminologies Current situation of the reuse support in ISD Research questions Research methodology Thesis structure and a short summary of each chapter Conclusion and discussions

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Dissertation

Component Reuse -- Conceptual Foundations and its Applications in the Metamodelling based System Analysis and Design Environment made up of 6 separate papers published or submitted for publication

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Thesis structure - table of contents


Chp1 Introduction Chp2 A Framework for Component Reuse in a Metamodelling Based Software Development (REJ, 6(2) 2001) Chp3 Defining Components in a MetaCASE Environment (CAiSE*00) Chp4 Component modeling for system analysis and design (ICSR7 2002 Workshop on Component-based Software Development Processes) Chp5 Component Context Specification and Representation in a MetaCASE Environment (submitting to REJ) Chp6 Component analysis in the metamodelling based information systems development (OOPSLA2001 workshop on DSVL) Chp7 Implementation and Evaluation of Component Reuse in Metamodelling Supported System Analysis and Design (Working paper)
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Thesis structure - Summary of the research questions and their handling


Research Question Q1: Conceptual framework Research Methodology Observation and Theory building Chapter Chp 1 & 2

Q2: Component model Theory building, Chp 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7 Prototyping, Laboratory experiment Q3: Needed facilities Prototyping, Chp 1, 5 & 7 Laboratory experiment

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Chapter 2 Abstract (A Framework for Component Reuse in a Metamodelling Based Software Development )
This chapter aims at suggesting a component reusability framework that can address issues related to design artifact and method component reuse in the lifecycle of systems development. In particular, it seeks to demonstrate how reuse ideas can be implemented in an industry strength environment called MetaEdit+. Our strategy to meet these goals is the following. We first develop a general framework for metamodelling based component reuse. This framework considers reuse from the perspectives of a systems development lifecycle, modeling levels, reuse situation types, component granularity, and reuse activities. The framework is then used to analyze support functionality within a metaCASE environment, and to suggest how reuse activities can be integrated into method engineering processes and associated tasks of defining development processes and their technical facilitation.

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General architecture for reuse


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Reuse Framework
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Chapter 3 Abstract (Defining Components in a MetaCASE Environment )

This chapter suggests component based approach helps unify design artefacts into components with explicit interfaces and meaningful context descriptions. We describe a method artifact from three perspectives: concept, content, and context. We create a component concept by using a hierarchical facet-based schema, and represent contextual relationship types by using definitional and reuse dependency, usage context, and implementation context links. This is the first attempt to explicitly define components into a metaCASE environment.

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Component model and its presentation in UML notation

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Chapter 4 Abstract (Component modeling for system analysis and design)

Taking into account the features of components and its involved metaCASE environment, This chapter improves the concept and text aspect of the component model by adding more supplementary information and offering more flexibility in its interface description. Such a component model and the associated functionality for component classification and retrieval greatly enhance the possibilities of incorporating reuse and components into the early phases of systems development practice.

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3C Component model

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Chapter 5 Abstract (Component Context


Specification and Representation in a MetaCASE Environment)

This chapter specifies the context aspect of the component model. It presenting and exemplifying the frameworks of component context and its hypertext representation in MetaEdit+. It addresses the possible linking of contextual knowledge to components, including the conceptual dependencies of component construction, reuse, and implementation, as well as the reasoning and rationale behind design and reuse processes. Furthermore, it illustrates the hypertext approach to contextual knowledge representation, which provides ways for users to express, explore, recognize, and negotiate their shared context.
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Chapter 6 Abstract (Component analysis in the metamodelling based information systems development)

This chapter presents the component taxonomy in the metamodelling based systems development environments, such as MetaEdit+. It elaborates on the aspects of structure, functionality, supporting environment, and reusability to analysis and compare between code component, model component, and metamodel component. Through comparison, it presents the current state of component based development in metaCASE environments, and reveals the difficulties and research directions in further research of component based metaCASE environment.

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Chapter 7 Abstract (Implementation and Evaluation


of Component Reuse in Metamodelling Supported System Analysis
and Design)

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The last chapter presents an empirical study of componentbased reuse in systems analysis and design. Based on the conceptual framework and 3C component model built in the prior chapters, a testing case is developed and the laboratory experiment is designed to study the usability of components in system analysis and design and the supporting functionality provided by a metaCASE environment. MetaEdit+ is used in the experiment.

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Conclusions

Contribution and limitations


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Interesting research topics - Reuse and agile approach


Will reuse be a suitable strategy for project teams taking an agile approach to software development? A lot of work has been done in the context of software reuse on heavyweight domain engineering method; however, there are also approaches such as Extreme Programming (XP), agile modelling, domain specific language that put emphasize on evolution, flexibility, and responsiveness rather than proactive and preplanned generalization. These approaches have been useful at either creating reusable components or at least made it so that systems can quickly evolve and adapt to changing user requirements.
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Interesting research topics Requirements reuse

How to apply a reuse based approach to the early phases of systems development, reusing requirements? (http://giro.infor.uva.es/docpub/Doc-Workshop.pdf) Framework? Process? Techniques?

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Interesting research topics

More are coming

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