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IN-FLIGHT PERFORMANCE

Cost Index
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Content

Specific Range

Cost Index

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Content

Specific Range

Cost Index

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1. Specific Range
SR variations with Mach number
SR: distance covered per fuel mass unit burnt
SR reaches a maximum at the MACH of MAXIRANGE (MMR)
SR (NM/t) 70 60 At the Mach of Maxi-Range, the fuel consumption is minimum as regards to the distance crossed at the given altitude and weight. 50 MMR
Given : - Altitude - Weight

Maxi Range
40

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.84 Mach

1. Specific Range
SR variations with Mach number
M < MMR SR
For a given fuel quantity, the covered distance is lower. For a given distance, consumption is higher. SR (NM/t) 70 60 50 MMR
Given : - Altitude - Weight

M < MMR time

MMR = Inferior limit

Maxi Range
40

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.84 Mach

1. Specific Range
MMR: advantages and drawbacks
Very advantageous regarding the trip fuel But MMR is too low Trip time is quite long

Solution
Increasing cruise speed without increasing too much the fuel consumption This is what Long Range Cruise Mach aims at

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1. Specific Range
Long Range Cruise Mach
Definition:
SR
SR: distance covered per fuel mass unit burnt

SRLRC = 99 % SRMAX Flying at LRC Mach enables a low fuel consumption (but NOT minimum), while the speed is higher than MMR
MMR
Max SR -1%

Given : - Altitude - Weight

LRC

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Mach

1. Specific Range
Long Range Cruise Mach
Advantages of LRC on MMR:
The 1% fuel consumption increment is compensated by an important gain on speed and consequently on flight time.
Any selected Mach number under LRC would result in a decrease in the fuel consumption. .76
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Example :

Max SR = MMR = M 0.796 Given SR Given : altitude - Altitude 99% of Max SR = 67.75 NM/t - Weight LRC = M 0.811 + 9 kt TAS MMR LRC

A330 SR: distance covered FL 350 per fuel mass unit burnt ISA 68.44 NM/t

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Mach

Content

Specific Range

Cost Index

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2. Cost Index
Direct Operating Costs: D.O.C.
Example of Direct Operating Costs
Insurance 2% Financial charges 17% Cyclic Maintenance 7% Hourly Maintenance 6% Cockpit crew 13%

Depreciation 27% Fuel 15%


Do not take as a reference

Cabin crew 13%

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2. Cost Index
Direct Operating Costs: D.O.C.
D.O.C. are made of:
Fixed costs Flight time related costs Fuel consumption related costs ECONOMY = Minimize D.O.C.

Lower fuel consumption

And / Or

Lower flight time

Compromise Time / Fuel ...

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2. Cost Index
Direct Operating Costs: D.O.C.
Fixed costs: CC
Aircraft ownership (depreciation, lease rentals unrelated to flight hours, insurance) ($) Cyclic maintenance ($) Fixed flight crew ($) Fixed cabin crew ($)

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2. Cost Index
Direct Operating Costs: D.O.C.
Time-related costs: CT . T
CT : Time related costs per flight hour:

- Hourly maintenance costs ($/h) - Airport charges ($/h) - Air Traffic Service charges ($/h) - Variable flight crew ($/h) - Variable cabin crew ($/h)
T: Number of flight hours (h)

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2. Cost Index
Direct Operating Costs: D.O.C.
Fuel consumption related costs: CF . F
CF : Cost of fuel unit ($/ton) F : Fuel consumed (tons)

Example of Direct Operating Costs


Cyclic Insurance Maintenance 2% 7%

Financial charges 17%

Hourly Maintenance 6%
Cockpit crew 13%

Depreciation 27% Fuel 15% Do not take as a reference

Cabin crew 13%

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2. Cost Index
ECON Mach
Economic Cruise Mach Number (ECON Mach): the Mach number which minimizes the D.O.C.

Costs

D.O.C.

Given: - Altitude - Weight - Wind

ECON
MMR LRC

Cost of Fuel Cost of Time


MMO

Fixed costs
Mach

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2. Cost Index
ECON Mach
The ECON Mach is a function of the A/C weight, A/C Altitude and wind conditions.

Costs

D.O.C.

Given: - Altitude - Weight - Wind

ECON
MMR LRC

Cost of Fuel Cost of Time


MMO

Fixed costs
Mach

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2. Cost Index
Definition: Cost Index

Cost of Time C.I. = Cost of Fuel


Ratio
Possible Range:
From 0 to 999 In operations: from 0 to 300

The ECON Mach depends on Cost Index

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2. Cost Index
Speed control and Cost Index

Cost of Time C.I. = Cost of Fuel


Increase in C.I. Increase in Mach

C. I. = 0

Fuel strategy

ECON Mach = MMR ECON Mach = MMO - 0.02

C. I. = 999

Time strategy

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2. Cost Index
Speed control and Cost Index
Whatever the Cost Index, ECON is always included between MMR (variable) and MMO - 0.02 (fixed).

Costs

D.O.C. Cost of Fuel


Given: - altitude - weight - wind

Cost of Time
LRC

Fixed costs
MMO-0.02 MMO
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MMR ECON
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Mach

2. Cost Index
Speed control and Cost Index

Cost of Time C.I. = Cost of Fuel


CI depends on each airline, and enables the speed on each route to be optimized to minimize the Direct Operating Costs.

It is inserted in the MFD (Multi Function Display) before departure, to enable AFS (Auto Flight System) calculation of ECON Mach according to external parameters.
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2. Cost Index
Speed control and Cost Index

Cost of Time C.I. = Cost of Fuel


Some flight planning systems allow to calculate the fuel at a fixed cost index, so that the speed is optimized all along the route as a function of the weight, altitude and wind conditions.

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2. Cost Index

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2. Cost Index
This table enables you to find the most cost effective Mach number vs. cost index, altitude and wind as calculated by the FMGC.
CI = 100 kg / min FL 350 Weight = 200 t Wind = 50 kt M 0.822
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