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Module 1

1. Introduction: Profile of Automobile Industry, Types of automobiles, general considerations relating to chassis layout and power plant Location, relative merits & demerits of different layouts, description of different types of chassis layout. 2. Frames: Types of Frames (conventional, integral construction and perimeter frame) materials, cross members and X members, frame sections, defects in frames, frame repairs, frame alignment. 3. Front axle and steering system: Front axle construction, stub axles, dead axle & live axle, front wheel assembly, steering geometry / wheel alignment - castor, camber, kingpin inclination, toe-in, toe-out, Condition for true rolling, effects of wheel misalignments, Ackerman & Davis steering gear, different types of steering gears and their construction, conventional layout of steering linkage. Power and power assisted steering, under steering and over steering effects, four wheel steering.

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Module-2
4. Suspension: Objectives, types of springs, spring materials, leaf spring, coil spring, torsion bar, rubber & pneumatic suspension, Hydro-elastic suspension, shock absorbers, types of independent suspension.

5.Drive line: Torque reaction, driving thrust, Hotchkiss drive, torque tube drive, propeller shaft, universal joints, types, differential action, constructional details, differential lock, limited slip differential, axle housing types & construction, double reduction axles.

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6. Brakes: Types, stopping times & distance, braking efficiency, brake drums and liners, theory of shoe brakes, self energizing brakes, determination of brake torque, disc brakes, classification of brakes, Hydraulic brakes, mechanical brakes, servo brakes, power assisted brakes, air brakes, fail safe brakes, exhaust brakes, retarders, layout & details of components. 7. Wheels and tyres: Types of wheel, construction of wired wheel, disc wheel, tyre type & construction, aspect ratio, specification of tyres, tyre rotation, static & rolling properties of pneumatic tyres.
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References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
7. 8.

Automobile Technology Dr.N.K.Giri, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi Automotive Technology jack Erjavec, Thomson Daimler Learning Automotive Technology M J Munney, SAE International Automotive Mechanics Crouse & Anglin, Tata Mc-Grawhill P.M Heldt- Automotive chassis, chillon co. New York 1952 Newton - Steeds & Garret- MOTOR VEHICLE, Illiffee Books publications ltd, 1962. G.B.S. Narang - Automobile Engineering, Khanna publishers, Delhi Kirpal singh- Automotive Engineering Vol. I, standard publishers, Delhi

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Classification of Automobiles

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Broad classification of Automobiles


Single unit vehicles or load carriers
Conventional cars & other two axle vehicles

The Articulated vehicles


Articulated trucks and buses using fifth wheel

The heavy Tractor vehicles


4x2, 6x2, 6x4 etc (Total wheels x no of drive wheels)

Special Types of vehicles


Dozers, Tippers, fire fighting vehicles etc
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Motor Cars
Saloon Car / Sedan
Esteem, Ikon, Skoda etc

Hatch Backs
Maruti 800, Fiat Palio etc

Coupe / sports coupe (Two seats)


Ferrari, Toyota

Convertibles
BMW,

Estate cars
Opel Sail,

SUVs & Pick ups


Mahindra Scorpio, Sumo , Pajero, Xylo
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Car body Styles

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Rigid 4 x 4 truck

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Automobile

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A Typical Truck Chassis

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Chassis Markings
1612 chassis
First two digits for Tonnage capacity and last two digits are one tenth of engine bhp. ie, 16 ton, 120 bhp engine

1210 chassis
12 tons capacity and 100 bhp engine

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Different Chassis Layouts


Front Engine rear wheel drive Front Engine Front wheel drive Rear Engine Rear wheel drive Mid Engine rear wheel drive Four wheel drive

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Front Engine Rear wheel drive

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Front Engine rear wheel drive


Characteristics of such system are:
Longitudinally placed engine helps easy body restoration and repair. Reasonably balanced weight distribution between the front and the rear wheels providing easier control of the vehicle. This will help in lightening steering force. Large space is available for passengers and the luggage. Due to the forward facing of the radiator, better use of natural air stream and it results in efficient cooling. Control linkages of clutch, gearbox, accelerator, choke etc are simple. Even accessibility of various components like engine, gearbox etc are better compared to other layouts. Propeller shaft tunnel for the rear wheel drive reduces passenger space. Noise and vibration sources are evenly placed. It is having better Gradability.

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Front Engine Front wheel Drive

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Front Engine front wheel drive


Characteristics of such system are:
Transmission and differential are combined and the P-shaft is eliminated. This will help to reduce substantial weight reduction. In case of transverse mounted engines, the final drive need not be turned through 90 degrees Overall noise and vibration are reduced because they are confined to the front of the engine. The interior of the vehicle are larger due to the absence of propeller shaft tunnel. There is more flexibility on the passenger compartment design. Since the fuel tank can be placed centrally, the luggage compartment can be large and flat. Because of the location of the engine on the front, there is a greater forward inertial force in case of a head-on collision. Therefore engine mounting components are to be reinforced accordingly.

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Rear engine Rear wheel drive

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Rear Engine Rear wheel drive


The Characteristics of such a system are:
Simple drive shaft layout due to the absence of propeller shaft, obstructed floor space is reduced. Weight of rear engine on the rear wheels or the drive wheels provides good traction and grip especially on steep hills as well as accelerating. Effective rear wheel braking and better proportion of weight transfer form front to rear in the event of braking. Good visibility and smooth airflow to the passengers can be obtained. Compact and a short layout. Due to the absence of engine at front, better aerodynamic shape can be achieved.

Disadvantages are:

Restricted luggage compartments Requires much efficient cooling system since natural air flow is poor on the engine. Due to much concentrated weight on the rear side, the vehicle is much unstable on the curves, resulting in over steering.
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Centrally Placed Engine


Characteristics of such system are: Since the engine is in the middle of the vehicle, the front hood can be shaped downward, improving aerodynamics, lowering the centre of gravity and improving the drivers field of vision. Engine access and the cooling efficiency are reduced because the engine is located between the passenger compartment and rear axle assembly. A barrier is to be provided between and the passenger compartment to reduce noise, vibration and heat that might otherwise enter the passenger compartment.
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Four Wheel Drive 4x4

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Four wheel Drive (4x4)


To improve traction of road vehicles on rough and unconstructed roads and tracks Since all the four wheels will get the drive, entire weight of the vehicle is used for the traction. This system is used in jeeps, military vehicles and comes as an option for most of the all terrain multi purpose vehicles now. This layout is generally used for dual purpose vehicles meant for use on rough as well as good roads. Generally a transfer gear box is provided to distribute the power to the live axles.
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understeer
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oversteer
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