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BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF RICE

BY :- RAJNISH YADAV M.Sc. MICROBIOLOGY(III SEM)

INTRODUCTION

JUST LIKE ANIMALS, PLANTS CAN ALSO BE

AFFECTED BY BACTERIAL DISEASE.


IN PLANTS BACTERIAL DISEASE MAY AFFECT

STEMS, LEAVES OR ROOTS OR BE CARRIED INTERNALLY.


GENERALLY, THEY BELONG TO THE GENERA

Erwinia, Pectobacterium, Pantoea, Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Burkholderia, Acidovorax, Xanthomonas, Clavibacter, Streptomyces, Xyllella, Spiroplasma, and Phytoplasma.

MAJOR DISEASES

1.BLIGHT

2. CANKER

Watersoaked margin

3. GALL

4.LEAF SPOTS

and many more.....

BACTERIAL LEAF BLIGHT


The invasion by the bacterium leads to very rapid and extensive necrosis of the affected plant parts resulting in scorched appearance of the host.
Or

we can say in which portions of leaves become discolored,dried out or dead.


Bacterial leaf blight can affect beans, rice, cotton, tomato, pepper, soyabean and cassava.

BACTRIAL LEAF BLIGHT OF RICE


Bacterial leaf blight of rice is a disease caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. It has been known to occur in rice since 1881. In India, the disease is a serious problem in Punjab,Haryana,Bihar and tarai region of Uttar Pradesh. The causal organism(Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) is a gram negative bacterium belong to the family Pseudomonadaceae. All most all member of the genus Xanthomonas are plant pathogens and cause number of economically important diseases.

The disease occurs in both tropical and temperate environments, particularly in irrigated and rainfed lowland areas. It is commonly observed when strong winds and continuous heavy rains occur . The disease is severe in susceptible rice varieties under high nitrogen fertilization.

BACTERIA
These are single-celled microscopic organisms
Bacteria can be carried from plant to plant in

droplets of water or by wind, rain splash, insects and equipments etc.


Bacteria often survive between seasons on crop

residue, seeds, cuttings or weeds.


In warm and wet conditions, bacteria reproduce

rapidly.

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae


The pathogen is a yellow, slime producing, motile, gram negative rod

with polar flagellum. Some attack plants and cause diseases.


In 1909 - Takaishi found bacterial masses in dew drops of rice leaves

but he did not name the organism.


In 1911 Bokura isolated a bacterium and named it Bacillus oryzae.
In 1922 - Pseudomonas oryzae(Ishiyama).

Xanthomonas campestris pv. Oryzae(Dye)


In 1990 - Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae(Swings et al).

In India five virulence groups of BB pathogen have been identified.

A serological classification of Indian strains of the rice BB

pathogen was carried out using monoclonal antibodies.

Serogroup I had 51 strain and remaining 19 strains formed 4

new serotype.

This result suggest that pathotypes may not relate to the serological diversity obtained in the

pathogen.

Serological classification of Indian strains of Xoo. A panel of six monoclonal bodies was used to serogroup 105 strains of Xoo collected from major rice-growing regions of India into six serological groups

SYMPTOMS
The disease is observed on both seedlings and older plants. On seedlings, infected leaves turn grayish green and roll up. As disease progresses, leaves turn yellow to straw-colored and wilt, leading whole seedlings to dry up and die. This expression of the disease is known as kresek. On older plants, lesions usually develop as water-soaked to yellow-orange stripes on leaf blades or leaf tips or on mechanically injured parts of leaves .Lesions have a wavy margin and progress toward the leaf base.

Kresek or wilting Pale yellow leaf

Leaf blight phase

On young lesions, bacterial ooze resembling a milky dew drop can be observed early in the morning. The bacterial ooze later on dries up and becomes small yellowish beads underneath the leaf.

Typical symptoms of bacterial blight on leaves.

YOUNG LESION

ELONGATED LESION WITH WAVY MARGIN

LIFE CYCLE

DETECTION OF XOO
By phage technique :- which involves the incubation of seed samples with a species phage. Serological methods: a. Gnanamanickam et al. demonstrated the detection of Xoo in rice seeds inoculated with the pathogen using enzymelinked immuno sorbent assay(ELISA). b. By IF: The bacterial colonies that reacted positively to monoclonal antibodies specific to the bacterium were examined by direct immunofluorescence (IF). Molecular probes:- This facilitate detection of even low numbers of the pathogen through PCR analyses.

ON NUTRIENT AGAR PLATE ,BACTERIAL COLONIES ARE CIRCULER ,LIGHT YELLOW, AND CONVEX , AND PRODUCE A YELLOW PIGMENT.

Colonies of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

Control of Bacterial Leaf Blight


Control of pathogen can be accompalished by:I.

CHEMICAL METHOD:The use of balanced amounts of plant nutrients, especially nitrogen.

Bordeaux mixture with or without sugar,

coppersoap mixture,
Spraying copper oxychloride and streptomycin solution at short intervals, Synthetic organic bactericides such as nickel dimethyl dithiocarbamate,

dithianone, phenazine and phenazine N-oxide were also recommended,

Seed treatment with bleaching powder (100g/ml) and zinc sulfate (2%) reduce
bacterial blight etc..

II. BIOLOGICAL METHOD:Introduction of microbes in the phylloplane,rhizosphere or soil

Stimulating indigenous antagonists


Induced resistance Biorational approaches

Inhibition of rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae by bacterial antagonists in dual plate assays .

HOST RESISTANCE:-

Qualitative resistance: controlled by major gene. Quantitative resistance: controlled by polygenic factors Genetic transformation.
GENERAL PRACTICES:Practicing field sanitation such as removing weed hosts, rice straws, ratoons, etc is important to

avoid infection caused by this disease.


Likewise, maintaining shallow water in nursery beds, providing good drainage during severe

flooding, plowing under rice stubble and straw following harvest are also management practices

that can be followed.


Proper plant spacing are recommended for the management of bacterial leaf blight.

BLB-TOLERANT HYBRID RICE IS NOW A REALITY !


FUTURE.....

References
J. Appl. Hort.,5(1):52-60, January-June, 2003 http://www.vegetableipmasia.org/docs/Rice/Control_of_Rice_DiseasesHTTP://anr catalog.ucdavis.edu. Review article by S. S. Gnanamanickam*, V. Brindha Priyadarisini, N. N. Narayanan,Preeti Vasudevan and S. Kavitha Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, India) Review article by Ramesh v sonti, CCMB, hyderabad,India. http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org Susan B. Jepson, OSU Plant Clinic, 1089 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-2903 http://www.ext.colostate.edu/mg/gardennotes/331.html#bacteria http://erec.ifas.ufl.edu/plant_pathology_guidelines/module_05.shtml http://ipm.illinois.edu

REPORT OF II ICBB IN CHINA..

THANK YOU