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Nida Pauline Rosete- SySantos, M.D.

University Physician Chief, Health Services

Anatomy of the Nursing Breast

Cross Section of a Baby Nursing

Breastfeeding- is the feeding of an infant or young child with breast milk directly from human breasts
rooting reflex
Babies have a sucking reflex that enables them to suck and

swallow milk

Correct positioning and technique for latching on can prevent nipple soreness and allow the baby to obtain enough milk.

Human breast milk is the healthiest form of milk for

babies.
Rooming-in is the practice of confining the newborn in

the same room as the mother, right after delivery until the time of discharge.

Production of Breast Milk

* hormones: prolactin and oxytocin Colostrum a thin yellowish fluid rich in protein and antibodies that provide passive immunity to the baby. - high in IgA which coats the GIT Antibodies - pass to the baby during breastfeeding

Anti- infective factors: a. lipase b. lactoferrin c. immunoglobulin A

Foremilk the milk released at the beginning of a feed - low in fat and high in carbohydrates Hindmilk- released as the feed progresses

Breast milk is made from nutrients in the mothers

bloodstream and bodily stores.


Breast milk has just the right amount of fat, sugar,

water, and protein that is needed for a babys growth and development.
The composition of breast milk changes depending on

how long the baby nurses at each session, as well as on the age of the child

Composition of human breast milk


Fat total (g/100ml) 4.2 trace 14 Fatty acids- length 8C (%) Polyunsaturated fatty acids (%) Protein (g/100mg) Total Casein 0.4 a-lactalbumin Lactoferrin IgA IgG Lysozyme Serum albumin B-lactoglobulin 1.1 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.001 0.05 0.05 -

Composition of human breast milk


Carbohydrate (g/100ml) Lactose 7

Oligosaccharides
Minerals (g/100ml) Calcium Phosphorus Sodium Potassium Chlorine

0.5

0.03 0.014 0.015 0.055 0.043

Comparison to other milks


Ingredient Protein Breast Milk Milk Formula high

Carbohydrate
Minerals Cholesterol

high
high high

Breastfeeding uses an average of 500 calories a day.


The amount of milk produced depends on how often the mother is nursing. Galactagogues- increasers of milk supply

Exclusive breastfeeding an infants consumption of

human milk with no supplementation of any type.


Feed anywhere from 6 to 14 times a day; 30 to 90 ml per

feed 120 ml
The birth weight of the baby may affect its feeding habits,

and mothers may be influenced by what they perceive its requirements to be. failure to thrive

Tandem nursing- occurs when a woman has a baby

while breastfeeding an older child.


Wet nursing- occurs when a woman is engaged to

breastfeed anothers baby

The quality of a mothers breast milk may be compromised by: smoking alcoholic beverages caffeinated drinks marijuana methamphetamine heroin

Breastfeeding promotes health and helps to prevent

disease.
Artificial feeding is associated with more deaths from

diarrhea in infants and infectious diseases in both developing and developed countries.

Advantages of Breastfeeding:

1. It helps protect the baby against common illnesses. 2. There is no need to prepare breast milk. 3. It is always available at no cost. 4. It helps babies grow up with closer bond to their mother. 5. It is easy to digest. 6. It is clean and has the right temperature.

Benefits for Infants:


1. Protects against Infection 2. Protects against Illnesses

3. Protection from Allergies


4. Protection from SIDS 5. Enhances Development and Intelligence

6. Less childhood Obesity 7. Less NEC in premature infants

Long Term Benefits for Infants

A. Dental Health B. Toddler Health C. Diabetes Mellitus D. Childhood Cancer

Benefits for Mothers

>>>>> Bonding : maternal bond familial bonds paternal bond

Benefits for Society

1. Optimum Child Spacing 2. Improved Vaccine Effectiveness 3. Financial Savings to Government and Families 4. More Ecological

The WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life, after which infants should receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods while breastfeeding continues for up to two years of age or beyond.

Exclusive expressing
Exclusive pumping Eping

- a mother feeds her baby exclusively on her breastmilk while not physically breastfeeding
*** nursing strike/ nipple confusion -EBM before 4-6 weeks of age should be given by other means

Storage of expressed breast milk


Place of storage In a room Insulated thermal bag with ice packs In a refrigerator Freezer inside a refrigerator Combines ref. and reezer with separate doors Chest or upright manual defrost freezer 4 15 18 39 5 0 C 25 F 77 Maximum storage time 6-8 hours Up to 24 hours Up to 5 days 2 weeks 3-6 months

20

-4

6-12 months

It is possible to estimate feeding from wet and soiled

nappies per 24 hours (for NB older than 5-6 days old): - 8 wet cloth/5-6 wet disposable - 2-5 soiled

Diet during Breastfeeding

Avoid: fish high in mercury Limit : alcohol caffeine diet coke- 46 mg per 12 oz can pepsi - 40 mg

General Guide to the growth of breastfed babies

during the first month : 112 200 grams a week first six months : to 1 kg per month 1 inch a month six months to one year : ka per month inch a month

Health Infant Growth

average breastfed baby:

- BW 2x in 5-6 months BW 2 1/2x in 1 year

Weaning- the process of introducing the infant to

other food and reducing the supply of breast milk. - psychological factors >>>mothers inability to let go of her baby - Bromocriptine

Breastfeeding difficulties

Physiological constraints: - HIV Infection - acute poisoning by environmental contaminants - breast surgery - Sheehans syndrome

Social-cultural constraints to breastfeeding

- work pressures - very short maternity leaves Barriers to breastfeeding: 1. Birth Procedures 2. Nursery Policies 3. Ignorance personal, partner, practitioner 4. Work Force 5. Poor Latch 6. HIV Infection

Alternative Uses for Breast Milk

- as a home remedy for minor ailments: conjunctivitis, insect bites & stings, contact dermatitis, infected wounds, burns, abrasions - boost the immune system

thank you!!!