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Microwave Equipment Maintenance Guide

Microwave Product Customer Service Dept. 2009-1

Microwave Communication Concept and Features


Microwave communication is radio wave relay communication adopting microwave frequency to carry information. Microwave, satellite and optical fiber communication are called 3 backbones of modern communication transmission.

Coaxial cable Microwave link

MUX

MUX

Satellite

Fiber optic cable

Digital Microwave Communication Link Buildup


Digital microwave communication link build-up: A digital microwave communication link consists of terminal station, relay station and pivotal station.

Terminal station Branch terminal station

Terminal station Pivotal station Relay station

Relay station

Microwave Communication System Buildup

Microwave Equipment Room Appearance

Guyed tower Self stand tower Cement tower

Roof stand tower

Microwave equipment room

Internal View of Equipment Room


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Common Fault Feedback and Process Flow


Start Customer find fault and complain to local office Urgent fault?

Yes

Refer to urgent fault feedback flow

No
Local office stuff

Yes
Problem settled?

No
Go to local office product expert Problem settled?

Yes

No
Go to product customer service department for technical support, technical manager Problem solved, output report to ZTE local office ZTE local office output report to customer

End

Urgent Fault Feedback and Process Flow


Start

Failures occur in field Customer

Receive fault complaint local office

Critical fault? Yes

No

Common fault handle flow Local office

Complain to product customer service department Local office End Start urgent fault handle flow Product customer service department

End

In-field Fault Feedback Table


Locale Fault feedback
Project Name Fault subject Referring date Fault Emergency degree Field Fault Handling Contact Tel Equipment Sort IDU Equipment Information ODU Antenna Fault affected area Troubleshooting Description operation 1 : History of operational records operation 2: operation 3: operation 4: Remark Result Result Result Result Type software Version Critical Major Mail Hardware Version Manufacturer PN Number Resolve date Common Marketing

Fault Elimination Procedures

Collect fault information

Analyze fault cause

Locate fault problems

Eliminate faults

Collect fault information

Maintenance stuff start to analyze various possible causes and judge the probability which could be used as reference for finding the root of fault.

After analysis, examine and exclude each possible cause till finally find the root.

According to the root, maintenance stuff eliminate the fault and recover system.

General Principles for Trouble-shooting

Trouble-shooting Sequence From indoor to outdoorfrom power to equipment From local to remotefrom ground to tower

Fault Elimination
Check Alarm and Operation Log

In the alarm management interface, monitor and analyze current alarm, history alarm and alarm updating from each network elements. Discover abnormal or potentially abnormal events in network. Then locate, isolate and eliminate faults.

In the alarm management interface, check operation log page of security management. Track operation on system configurations and locate corresponding terminal and operator. Discover the fault caused by private operation timely.
Checking alarm and operation log is the first step when fault occurs. Mainly check IDU operation and maintenance page and network management alarm and operation log.

Check Alarm Page

If the system doesn't run correctly, go to WEB CIT fault management page to check current system alarm and eliminate faults according to the alarms.

If the system works normally, there will be no alarm and LED on IDU panel shall be all green.

LED Status Analysis

LED status analysis is a common method in trouble shooting. Check the LED status to confirm and eliminate the fault.

LED Status Introduction


ALARM/MAINT LED Status Introduction
Label Color
Off Green ALARM /MAINT (SYSTEM) On

Action
The system is turn off

Meaning
The system is operating properly, no any alarm

Slow Flashing Red


On Slow Flashing

The system is booting


Major alarm, details need to check through Web-CIT The system have configuration error during booting

On
Yellow Slow Flashing

Major alarm, details need to check through Web-CIT


The system have fault during booting, but not effect traffic

LED Status Introduction

MU LED Status Introduction


Label Color Off Green On MU (MODEM) On Red Flashing On Yellow Flashing The redundant modem is synchronizing The modem is synchronizing In a protected system. the MU is in redundant state The MU is operating properly The MU has failed Action The system is turn off Meaning

LED Status Introduction

ODU LED Status Introduction

Label

Color

Action

Meaning

Off
Green On ODU Red On

The ODU is absent


The ODU is operating properly The ODU has failed

Yellow

On

In a protected system. the MU is in redundant state

Fault Eliminate Methods


Loop Back Test

Internal Loop

External Loop

Loop Back Test Method

Loop back test sends signal out from TX port of network element and receive from the RX port. It is often used for testing transmission link fault. Loop back test divides the link into segments and find the fault segment by segment. The test examine the operation status of nodes and links and help to locate the fault. The test also make equipment commissioning easier.
Loop back can be hardware loop and software loop.

Internal Loop Back


E1 interface circuit E1 interface circuit

Bit Error Analyzer

Step 1: Connect the equipments according to the diagram above. Step 2: Press red PWR button for 2 seconds to turn on the analyzer. Power on menu will display in the screen and turn to main menu after a few seconds. Step 3: Press start/stop button to start test. ERR, FAS, LOS do not light; Errored second (ES) calculates correctly. ES quantity and ES ratio are all zero. A ES will calculate in local end after press INS button once. If above 3 terms are fulfilled, the test is correct. Otherwise there is fault.

External Loop Back


E1 interface circuit

Bit Error Analyzer

Step 1: Connect the equipments according to the diagram above. Step 2: Press red PWR button for 2 seconds to turn on the analyzer. Power on menu will display in the screen and turn to main menu after a few seconds. Step 3: Press start/stop button to start test.

ERR, FAS, LOS do not light; Errored second (ES) calculates correctly. ES quantity and ES ratio are all zero. A ES will calculate in local end after press INS button once. If above 3 terms are fulfilled, the test is correct. Otherwise there is fault.

Equipment Maintenance
Power on procedures

1. Confirm hardware and cables are installed properly. Equipment input power complies with requirements. There is no short in equipments. Fan plug-in box are installed correctly.

2. Turn on the switch of power line from equipment room to microwave equipment.

3. Switch IDU to ON, check power indication LED. The LED shall light and shall be green. And fans run normally.

Equipment Maintenance
Power off procedures

1. Switch the IDU power to OFF.

2. Turn off the switch of power line from equipment room to microwave equipment and cut off the equipment input power supply.

Equipment Maintenance
For 1+1 protection, when remove one link, lock the circuits of both ends to the other link. Do not change the frequency without the permission from the person in charge. When changing frequency, change both ends of a link. When connecting ODU, make sure the cables and other parts are connected Correctly.

Make clear mark on the damaged/failure equipments.

Typical Fault Analysis1


Case 1: RX level can not reach design value.

Appearance: Adjust antennas repeatedly, radio link and EOW are OK, but RX level can not reach design value.

Adjust Steps:

Step1: Check if antennas are adjusted properly, and if antennas are adjusted to main lobe.
If it is the cause, adjust antennas in wide range till find the main lobe. If not, go to the next step.

Step 2: Check the polarization of the two ends and the polarization of ODU and Antenna. If the polarization are not consistent, adjust to the same.

Antenna Waveguide Connecter RF Connecter to the Antenna

Step 3: Check if the feeder is damp or has water in it.

Check waterproof of important parts and the cable loop before entering equipment room.

Step 4: Use a 1:50000 map to make sectional drawings and check if there is any obstacle. If there is an obstacle, change antenna height or change linke routing. If no obstacle, check ODU power. If the power is low, change ODU.

Typical Fault Analysis2


Case 2: Transient Interruption

Appearance: Traffic works normally and RX level reaches design value. Transient interruption occurs once or twice a day, but recover immediately.

Analysis: If the interruption occurs regularly or occurs at fixed time period, besides environment factors, problems caused by environment change shall be considered also, such as bad contact of IF connecters and DDF connecters.

Typical Failure Analysis3

Case 3: Water goes in to ODU and causes equipment damage and If cable short.

Analysis: The fault mainly occurs in rain season or wet season. Water goes or accumulates in the connection part of waveguide and IF cable. Judge if IF cable has short according to alarm and LED. Test if there is short with multimeter or according to alarm LED.

Typical Failure Analysis4


Case 4: IDU and ODU alarm on IDU of both ends. Analysis: Step 1: Check if the frequency of ODU on two ends are suited. Step 2: Check frequency configuration whether it is in the sub band frequency range of ODU. Step 3: Test if there is normal DC voltage of IDU IF connecter. If the voltage is not normal, replace IDU. Note: Power off IDU before disconnect IF cable. Avoid short between core wire and shielding layer and damage equipment when measuring voltage.

First test the voltage of IDU IF connecter. IF the DC voltage is normal, examine the connecter of IF cable to ODU. Test voltage of this connecter with multimeter, if it is not normal, replace the IF cable or make a new N type male connecter.

Step 4: If all tests above are correct, but ODU TX power voltage is still 0V, please replace ODU.

Step 5: Check if the antenna polarization is correct and polarization of antenna and ODU are consistent.

Step 6: Check if the true antenna azimuth complies with the designed value.

Step 7: Check if there is obstacle in routing.

Typical Failure Analysis5


Case 5: ZXMW PR10 IDU cannot power on. Analysis:

Step 1: Examine voltage and polarity of power connecter. Examine fuse of IDU. Step 2: Check if there is short or other deviance of IF cable. Step 3: IDU is not grounded to grounding points of the rack. Ground IDU to grounding point, IDU power on OK.

Fault cause: V3 IDU can not power on without grounding. Eliminate fault: Examine if IDU grounding comply with regulations.

Typical Failure Analysis6


Case 5: 1+1 protection IDU. After running for a period, MU board A can not power on. ODU A ODU B IDU B IDU A Analysis and elimination Step 1: Check power connecter, fuse and IF cable connecter. If all OK, go to next step. If not, modify power supply, replace fuse or make new IF cable connecters. Step 2: Disconnect IF cable of ODU A, and MU A can not power on still.

Equipments connection diagram:

Step 3: Unplug MOS fuse of MU A and plug back, and do not connect IF cable. MU A power on normally, and IF port outputs voltage normally. MU A is good.

Typical Failure Analysis6


Step 4: Connect IF cable ODU A to MU B, and MU B can not power on. Step 5: Connect IF cable of ODU B to MU A and MU A works normally. So it is ODU A failure. Step 6: Download log of ODU A and then replace ODU A.

Fault cause: ODU failure

Fault elimination: replace ODU

Return and Repair Flow


Customer discovers and takes off the failed hardware, and fills Fault Record Card. Pay attention to static shielding. Wear antistatic shoes and wrist strap before taking off failed hardware. Fill Fault record Card for each failed hardware and tie the card to the corresponding hardware. Email or fax Failed Equipment Repair Table to ZTE local office, ZTE stuff will affirm the application in the same day and email or fax back the RMA code for the application.

Customer fills Failed Equipment Repair Table. Email or fax the repair application.

Customer receives RMA code and pack failed hardware properly.

Hold the protection part of each failed hardware and put it into the antistatic bag. And then place into packing box offered by ZTE.

Customer put Failed Equipment Repair Table into the packing box and deliver the goods to ZTE local office.

Put Failed Equipment Repair Table confirmed By ZTE into the packing box as the packing list. Deliver to ZTE local office in a safe and fast way.

Return and Repair Flow

ZTE receive failed equipment and sent receive acknowledgement to customer.

ZTE receives failed equipment and checks against the Failed Equipment Repair Table. Email or fax receive acknowledge to customer.

ZTE repairs or replaces failed parts according to the service contract.

ZTE will repair or replace failed equipments according to the terms in the service contract.

ZTE delivers repaired or replaced equipment back to customer and sends customer delivery information.

ZTE delivers repaired or replaced equipments to customers with Repaired Equipment Receiving Feedback Table and sends customer delivery information.