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Parul Institute of Engineering & Technology

Subject Code : 330903 Name Of Subject : Machine -1 Name of Unit :D.C. MOTOR Topic :Testing of d.c. motor

Name of Faculty :Harshad Mayavanshi Name of Students: (i) Parmar Kinjal (116380309009) (ii) Thite Vishruta (116380309020)

In this presentation, 2 most commonly Used methods are described briefly. These two methods are: 1) Direct Method & 2) Indirect Method

This method is suitable for small d.c. machines. In this method the d.c. machine is subjected to rated load and the entire power output is wasted.
For a d.c. generator, the output power is wasted in resistor.

D.C. MOTOR

Brake Test

Swinburns Test

BRAKE TEST

Figure shows the arrangement for this load test. It consists of a brake drum keyed to the shaft of the motor. The brake drum is filled with water to cool it. It is made of cast iron or aluminium.

A belt is wrapped around the drumad each end of the belt is attached to a spring balance.
The spring balances are suspended from a frame which is fixed rigidly. Hand wheels are provided on the top of the frame.

The tension on the belt is adjusted by turning the hand wheels.


If the tension on the belt is increased, then the load on the motor is increased.

The spring balances indicate the force acting on the brake drum.

The net torque in Kg-m is calculated using the expression.

ADVANTAGES 1) The test is simple. 2) Machine is actually loaded, so true efficiency is obtained 3) As the machine is loaded, the actual working condition is produced, So the conditions like armature reaction, heating, commutation etc. are produced when the machine will be used.

DISADVANTAGES
1) Test is expensive as the output power is wasted. 2) Large amount of heat is produced in machine of high rating so there is difficulty of cooling it. Due to these two reasons, the test is limited for the machine of the small rating.

SWINBURNS TEST

Losses are measured separately in this method, and efficiency at any desired load is predetermined.
The iron and friction losses can be determined by measuring the input to the machine at no-load.

The machine is run as a motor at normal voltage and speed.


The copper losses are calculated from measured values of the various resistances. This method is only applicable to level compounded and shunt motors.

No load input current = ILo A


Supply voltage = V volt

So, the no load input power = V*ILo


No load armature current Iao = (ILo Ish) No load armature copper loss = Iao^2 Ra

Input power = Output power + Total loss Losses = No load armature copper loss + Constant Losses Wc V ILo = Iao^2 Ra + Wc
So, constant losses Wc = V ILo Iao^2 Ra

ADVANTAGES 1) This test is economical as the machine is run only at no load so power equal to the losses is drawn from the mains. 2) Efficiency of the machine can be found either as motor or generator.

3) Machine is not loaded so no arrangement is to be done for loading of the machine.

DISADVANTAGES 1)It is assumed that the iron losses of the machine remain constant but in practice when the machine is loaded, there is change in flux due to the armature reaction so the iron losses change. 2) This test is used for the machine whose speed remains almost constant.

3) Machine is tested at the no load so it does not give any idea about commutation, armature reaction, heating etc. when the machine will be actually loaded.

Sub: M/c- 1 Topic: Testing of motor