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FANS IN FIRE SAFETY

Woods Air Movement Limited 2001

METHODS OF SMOKE CONTROL


DEFINITIONS
SMOKE CONTROL ANY method for controlling smoke movement or dilution.

CONTAINMENT
DISPOSAL CLEARANCE

The use of physical barriers (BS5588 - Parts 1 to 3).


The continuous dilution of smoke to a safe concentration. Removal of smoke from a building after the fire has been suppressed. Blowing clean air into the escape route to hold back smoke from fire (BS5588 Part 4). Extracting hot smoke from the FIRE ROOM to hold back smoke from the escape route (BS5588 Part 4 Rewrite). The use of FANS or VENTS to keep buoyant smoke ABOVE the escape route - in the same space (BS5588 Parts 7 & 10).

PRESSURISATION

DE-PRESSURISATION

SMOKE VENTILATION

SMOKE VENTILATION

BRITISH STANDARD - BS5588


Fire Precautions in Buildings
PART 1 PART 2 PART 3 PART 4 PART 5 PART 6 PART 7 PART 8 PART 9 PART 10 PART 11 Code of Practice (C.O.P.) for flats and maisonettes in blocks over 2 storey C.O.P. for shops C.O.P. for offices Smoke control in protected escape routes using pressurisation C.O.P. for fire fighting shafts C.O.P. for places of assembly C.O.P. for smoke control in atrium C.O.P. for means of escape for the disabled C.O.P. for ventilation and air conditioning duct work C.O.P. for smoke control in enclosed shopping malls C.O.P. for residential, warehouses, factories and similar buildings.

U.K. - STATUTORY PROCEDURES


New Building Manual of the BUILDING REGULATIONS - 1991 APPROVED DOCUMENT B FIRE SAFETY BS5588 PART 1 - 11 (Fire Precautions in the Design, Construction & Use of Buildings). Building Control Officer Surveyor in London

Variations/Relaxations

S T AT U T O R Y B A R
Buildings in Use FIRE PRECAUTIONS ACT Fire Prevention Officer

FIRE CERTIFICATE

FRAMEWORK FOR FIRE SAFETY


APPROVED FRAMEWORK FIRE SAFETY DOCUMENT B SAFE IN BUILDINGS

BS5588

SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEM SAFE

BS7346

COMPONENTS SAFE

MANUF ACTURER SAFE BS5750 - Part 1

STAGES OF A TYPICAL UNCONTROLLED FIRE IN A COMPARTMENT

Flashover

*
'Steady" state Decay

Note: The scales from the two axes of the graph have been deliberately omitted because the rate of development and the severity of fires differ greatly although the general relationship varies very much less.

Initiation

Growth

Time

MAINTAINING A CLEAR LAYER FOR OCCUPANTS TO ESCAPE

CLEAR LAYER

BACKDRAUGHT

UNVENTILATED ROOM - SMOKE LOGGED ATMOSPHERE

FLASHOVER

550C/ 600C

RADIATED HEAT

UNVENTILATED ROOM - HIGH TEMPERATURE

LARGE VOLUME UNDIVIDED BUILDINGS

Y
FRESHAIR FLOW

P
M = 0.19PY1.5 M = Rate of production of hot gases (kg/sec) P = Perimeter of fire (metres) Y = Height of smoke layer (metres)

RELEVANT FORMULAE
M M P Y Q = = = = 0.19PY1.5 Mass of smoke (kg/s) Perimeter of fire (m) Height of smoke layer (m)

= Qs M Q = Temperature rise of smoke above ambient (C) Qs = Heat carried by smoke (kW) M = Mass of smoke (kg/s) V V Q M = M(Q +290) 354 = Volume of smoke (m3 /s) = Temperature rise (from equation [2]) = Mass of smoke (from equation [1])

DESIGN FIRE SIZE


1) 'Standard' Design Fires 12 m Perimeter x 3 MW 12/16 m Perimeter x 2.5 MW

24 m Perimeter x 7 MW
2) 'Sprinkler' Method Area covered by 4 sprinklers (m2) x Heat output (kW/m2) 3) 'Ask the Fire Officer' How Big? Area provided by Fire Officer (m2) x Heat output (kW/m2)

4)

Spreading/Growing Fire

DESIGN FIRE SIZE

3 m x 3 m x 5 MW

TYPICAL BURNING RATES


MATERIAL Stacked Chipboard Books Furniture Crated Furniture Cellulose's Cardboard Reels Vehicles/Petrol/Paint Cartons/Electrical Goods Stacked Cardboard Stacked Sawn Timber Cardboard Cartons Methylated Spirits Light Fuel Oil Petrol Retail Store BURNING RATE (kW/m2) 85 93 93 100 160 210 260 310 320 390 630 740 1475 1590 500 (max)

SMOKE RESERVOIRS

PRINCIPLE OF COMPARTMENTATION

AIR INLETS

EFFECT OF INLET AREA ON VENTILATOR AREA

FIRE SMOKE VENTING CALCULATION PROCEDURE


STEP ONE Establish Smoke Zones

STEP TWO - Establish Design Fire Size (For example - Sprinklered Store) Sprinkler Grid = 3 m x 3m Area of Grid = 9m2 (say 10 m2) Burning Rate (Store) = 500 kW/m2

Heat Output of Fire


Perimeter of Fire Design Fire Size STEP THREE Decide:-

= 10 x 500 = 5000 kW (5 MW)


= 4 x 3 m = 12 m [P] = 3 m x 3 m x 5 MW

Height of Smoke Layer Heat loss by radiation

- say 4 m [Y] - say 30%

Ambient Temperature - say 17C

FIRE SMOKE VENTING CALCULATION PROCEDURE


STEP FOUR - Calculate Smoke Temperature, Ventilation Rate 1) M = 0.19PY1.5 = 0.19 x 12 x 4 2) Q = Qs = 0.7 x 5000 M 18.3

= 18.3 kg/s = 191C

Therefore, SMOKE TEMPERATURE = 191 + 17 = 208C

3) V

= M (Q + 290)
354

= 18.3 (191 + 290)


354 = 25 m 3 / s

SHOPPING MALLS
M MALL MALL

M SHOP SHOP

Ym Ys

M SHOP = 0.19 PYs1.5 NOTE:

M MALL = 0.38 PYm1.5

Turbulence just outside shop effectively doubles

quantity of smoke and reduces its temperature.

FAN SELECTION PROCEDURE

1) 2)

Calculate smoke volume and temperature. Select fan from H.T. category higher.

3)
4) 5) 6)

Size motors to handle air at ambient.


Ensure Bifurcated fans have ambient air to motor. Independent electrical supply. Are fans to be used for normal ventilation?

TEMPERATURE & TIME SPECIFICATION


Category Temperature Time (C) (Hours) 150 2.0 Category Code H.T.150/2 Fan Types Available Aerofoil Bifurcated Varofoil Aerofoil Bifurcated Varofoil Aerofoil Bifurcated Varofoil Aerofoil Bifurcated Aerofoil Bifurcated Bifurcated Roof Extract Units Available DVA & UDA

200

2.0

H.T.200/2

DVA & UDA

250 300 300 400 600

2.0 0.5 1.0 2.0 1.5

H.T.300/0.5

DVA & UDA

H.T.300/1 H.T.400/2A H.T.600/1.5B

DVA & UDA UDA UDA

SMOKE VENTING FROM LARGE SHOPS OR LARGE OPEN AREAS

600C
300C 200C

Height of Smoke Temperatures Smoke Open Space (M=0.19 PY1.5 ) Malls (M=0.38PY1.5 ) Layer (metres) C (min) C (max) C (min) C (max) 2.5 3.0 4.0 406 335 208 573 473 291 156 122 85 295 227 154

300C

200C

8.0
12.0

80
50

114
70

36
27

66
43

SMOKE VENTING FROM SHOPPING MALLS

Height of Smoke Layer Mass Rate (metres) (kg/s) 2.5 3.0 4.0 8.0 18.0 24.0 36.6 103.0

Plume Theory - 0.38 PY


Volume Rate
m3/s (min) m3/s (max) 22 27 37 92 29 34 44 99

1.5

Smoke Temperature
C (min) C (max) 156 122 85 41 295 227 154
150C 300C

66

Ambient temperature = 17C Heat output of fire = 5 Megawatts Maximum values - Qs = 5 Megawatts Minimum values - Qs = 2.5 Megawatts Heat loss to structure = 50%

UNDERGROUND CAR PARK


Height of No Sprinklers Sprinkler Controlled Smoke Layer Extract Rate Smoke Temp. Extract Rate Smoke Temp. (metres) (m3/s) (C) (m3/s) (C)
300C 200C

2.0

10.22

288

7.23

124

2.5
3.0 3.5

12.30
14.60 17.15

211
165 134

10.27
12.74 15.90

114
108 104

4.0

19.88

113

19.32

102

Fire size Total heat output Assumed Heat losses Ambient Temperature Sprinkler bulb fuse temperature Number of Smoke Extract points Dilution rate

=4mx2m = 2.5 Megawatts = 30% = 17C = 100C = 8 per zone = 8 to 1

SMOKE VENTING FROM ATRIA


Height of Smoke Layer (metres)

Plume Theory - 0.19 PY


Volume Rate Mass Rate (kg/s) m3/s (min) m3/s (max)

1.5

Smoke Temperature C (min) C (max)

4.0 (1 floor)
8.0 (2 floors)

18.3
51.5

22
49

29
57

154
66

291
114

300C
150C

12.0 (3 floors)
24.0 ( 6 floors)

95.0
268.0

85
226

92
234

43
26

70
36

Ambient temperature Heat output of fire Maximum values - Qs Minimum values - Qs Heat loss to structure

= 17C = 5 Megawatts = 5 Megawatts = 2.5 Megawatts = 50%

HT CERTIFICATION - UNITED KINGDOM

HT CERTIFICATION - OVERSEAS

REQUIREMENTS OF A SMOKE VENTING FAN


1) To extract hot smoke for long enough to allow the escape of occupants. 2) 3) 4) 5) Assist the FIRE BRIGADE locate the fire. Clear the residue smoke from the building. Be able to Provide Normal Ventilation. Extract cold smoke during the early critical stages of the fire. 6) Have flexibility of air volume duty to cover many variations of ventilation rates. 7) Be both DUCT MOUNTED and ROOF

MOUNTED.

SMOKE CONTROL BY PRESSURISATION

Woods Air Movement Limited 2001

BRITISH STANDARD - BS5588


Fire Precautions in Buildings
PART 1 PART 2 PART 3 PART 4 PART 5 PART 6 PART 7 PART 8 PART 9 PART 10 PART 11 Code of Practice (C.O.P.) for flats and maisonettes in blocks over 2 storey C.O.P. for shops C.O.P. for offices Smoke control in protected escape routes using pressurisation C.O.P. for fire fighting shafts C.O.P. for places of assembly C.O.P. for smoke control in atrium C.O.P. for means of escape for the disabled C.O.P. for ventilation and air conditioning duct work C.O.P. for smoke control in enclosed shopping malls C.O.P. for residential, warehouses, factories and similar buildings.

METHODS OF SMOKE CONTROL


DEFINITIONS
SMOKE CONTROL ANY method for controlling smoke movement or dilution.

CONTAINMENT
DISPOSAL CLEARANCE

The use of physical barriers (BS5588 - Parts 1 to 3).


The continuous dilution of smoke to a safe concentration. Removal of smoke from a building after the fire has been supressed. Blowing clean air into the escape route to hold back smoke from fire (BS5588 Part 4). Extracting hot smoke from the FIRE ROOM to hold back smoke from the escape route (BS5588 Part 4 Rewrite). The use of FANS or VENTS to keep bouyant smoke ABOVE the escape route - in the same space (BS5588 Parts 7 & 10).

PRESSURISATION

DE-PRESSURISATION

SMOKE VENTILATION

METHODS OF SMOKE CONTROL

1) Ventilation

Removal of hot smoke from FIRE ROOM

2) Pressurisation -

Keeping smoke out of escape routes using PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS or VELOCITY

SMOKE CONTROL BY PRESSURISATION


Potential Market Applications

1) High Rise Buildings

Stairs; Corridors Lift Wells; Lift Lobbies Stairs; Lifts Shop Service / Escape Corridors Escape Corridors

2) Places of Assembly 3) Shopping Centres

4) Storage Warehouses

5) Hospitals

Stairs; Lifts

PRESSURISATION

Simple in Concept !!
Difficult in Practice !!

COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CODES AND PRACTICES

WHY PRESSURISATION ?

ELEMENTS OF A PRESSURISATION SYSTEM

CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDINGS FOR SMOKE CONTROL USING PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS

MODES OF OPERATION
DETECTION PHASE - ALL SYSTEMS

Mode 1:DETECTION PHASE - to raise a pressure differential in the protection space, staircase, corridor etc. by the required amount (50 Pa in the UK) when ALL DOORS ARE CLOSED

CLASS A SYSTEMS - ESCAPE PHASE (Mode 2)

MODES OF OPERATION

Mode 2:ESCAPE PHASE - to maintain a specified AIR VELOCITY (0.75m/sec) through the OPEN DOOR(s) onto the fire floor with various other doors open, OR a PRESSURE DIFFERENCE OF 10+ Pa with the fire door(s) closed and various other doors open.

CLASS C SYSTEMS - ESCAPE PHASE (Mode 2)

MODES OF OPERATION

CLASS D SYSTEMS - ESCAPE PHASE (Mode 2)

MODES OF OPERATION

CLASS E SYSTEMS - ESCAPE PHASE (Mode 2)

MODES OF OPERATION

CLASS B SYSTEMS - FIRE FIGHTING PHASE (Mode 3)

MODES OF OPERATION

Mode 3:FIRE FIGHTING PHASE to maintain a specified AIR VELOCITY (2.0m/sec) through the OPEN DOOR(s) onto the fire floor with various other doors open.

AREAS TO BE PRESSURISED
STAIRCASE ONLY

The Smoke Control system will provide protection to the vertical part of the escape route only. It should only be used when the STAIRCASE is entered direct from the accommodation or via a simple lobby (ie. A lobby without Lifts, Toilets or other possible air escape routes.

AREAS TO BE PRESSURISED
STAIRCASE & LOBBY

Two duct systems, from a common fan, required both for Staircase and Lift Lobby, used where the Lobby provides outlets from Lifts, contains Toilets or other ancillary rooms.

AREAS TO BE PRESSURISED
STAIRCASE, LOBBY & CORRIDOR

Extending the Lobby pressurisation system into the Corridor using additional outlets in the corridor. Used only where the construction of the corridor has a fire resistance of 30 minutes or more.

DESIGN PRESSURES

Building Height (m) 5 25 50 100

Fire Pressure (Pa) 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5

Wind/Stack Ef fect (Pa) 8.0 10.5 13.0 19.5

Design Pressure (Pa) 25 25 50 50

150

8.5

29.5

50

MAXIMUM PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL - 60 PA BS 5588 Part 4

REQUIREMENTS OF A PRESSURISATION SYSTEM


Escape Only - To develop a 50 Pa PRESSURE in escape route with ALL DOORS CLOSED. To achieve a VELOCITY of 0.75 m/sec through OPEN DOOR on fire floor with various other doors OPEN. - OR in the case of Class C, D and E systems - To develop a 10 Pa PRESSURE in escape route with DOOR on fire floor CLOSED and certain other DOORS OPEN.

2. Fire Fighting - CLASS B SYSTEMS To achieve a VELOCITY of 2.0 m/sec through the OPEN DOOR on the fire floor with various other DOORS OPEN. 3. Exhaust Air - To provide a LOW RESISTANCE PATH for the supply air to leave the building via the FIRE FLOOR.

SAMPLE CALCULATION

REQUIREMENTS OF A PRESSURISATION FAN


1) Supply Fans must be capable of duty changes on site. 2) Supply Fans need a steep volume/pressure curve. 3) Supply Fans must allow air volume changes when running. 4) Supply Fans should develop high, stable pressure.

5) Exhaust Fans must be capable of handling the hot fire smoke and comply with BS7346 Part 2.
6) Fans should be lightweight, vibration free and easy to install. 7) Fans should be reliable in OPERATION and PERFORMANCE.

METHOD FOR ACHIEVEING VARIABLE VOLUME

1. Constant Speed - Single Fan + PRESSURE RELIEF (Pressurisation Unit)

2. Constant Speed - Twin Fans + PRESSURE RELIEF


3. Variable Speed Fans

4. Constant Speed - Variable Pitch in Motion Fans

ROOF UNIT WITH PRESSURE RELIEF SHUTTERS

Standby Fans