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Seismic Design Principles

Basic Principles of Design


Reinforced concrete structures are designed to dissipate seismic induced energy through inelastic deformations
Ve Ve = S(Ta) Mv IE W / (Rd Ro)

Ve /Rd
Ve /Rd Ro

Basic Principles of Design


Inelasticity results softening in the structure, elongating structural period
S(T)

S1

S2 T1 T2 T

Basic Principles of Design


Capacity Demand
It is a good practice to reduce seismic demands, to the extent possible. This can be done at the conceptual stage by selecting a suitable structural system.

To reduce seismic demands


Select a suitable site with favorable soil conditions

Avoid using unnecessary mass


Use a simple structural layout with minimum torsional effects Avoid strength and stiffness taper along the height Avoid soft storeys

Provide sufficient lateral bracing and drift control by using concrete structural walls
Isolate non-structural elements

Seismic Amplification due to Soft Soil

Liquefaction

Liquefaction

Liquefaction

To reduce seismic demands


Select a suitable site with favorable soil conditions

Avoid using unnecessary mass


Use a simple structural layout with minimum torsional effects Avoid strength and stiffness taper along the height Avoid soft storeys

Provide sufficient lateral bracing and drift control by using concrete structural walls
Isolate non-structural elements

Use of Unnecessary Mass

Use of Unnecessary Mass

Use of Unnecessary Mass

Use of Unnecessary Mass

To reduce seismic demands


Select a suitable site with favorable soil conditions

Avoid using unnecessary mass


Use a simple structural layout with minimum torsional effects Avoid strength and stiffness taper along the height Avoid soft storeys

Provide sufficient lateral bracing and drift control by using concrete structural walls
Isolate non-structural elements

Effect of Torsion

Effect of Torsion

Effect of Torsion

Effect of Torsion

Effect of Torsion

Effect of Torsion

Effect of Torsion

Effect of Torsion

To reduce seismic demands


Select a suitable site with favorable soil conditions

Avoid using unnecessary mass


Use a simple structural layout with minimum torsional effects Avoid strength and stiffness taper along the height Avoid soft storeys

Provide sufficient lateral bracing and drift control by using concrete structural walls
Isolate non-structural elements

Effect of Vertical Discontinuity

Effect of Vertical Discontinuity

To reduce seismic demands


Select a suitable site with favorable soil conditions

Avoid using unnecessary mass


Use a simple structural layout with minimum torsional effects Avoid strength and stiffness taper along the height Avoid soft storeys

Provide sufficient lateral bracing and drift control by using concrete structural walls
Isolate non-structural elements

Effect of Soft Storey

Effect of Soft Storey

Effect of Soft Storey

Effect of Soft Storey

To reduce seismic demands


Select a suitable site with favorable soil conditions

Avoid using unnecessary mass


Use a simple structural layout with minimum torsional effects Avoid strength and stiffness taper along the height Avoid soft storeys

Provide sufficient lateral bracing and drift control by using concrete structural walls
Isolate non-structural elements

R/C Frame Buildings without Drift Control

Buildings Stiffened by Structural Walls

To reduce seismic demands


Select a suitable site with favorable soil conditions

Avoid using unnecessary mass


Use a simple structural layout with minimum torsional effects Avoid strength and stiffness taper along the height Avoid soft storeys

Provide sufficient lateral bracing and drift control by using concrete structural walls
Isolate non-structural elements

Short Column Effect

Short Column Effect

Stiffness Properties for Analysis


Concrete cracks under own weight of structure If concrete is not cracked, then the structure is not reinforced concrete (plain concrete) Hence it is important to account for the softening of structures due to cracking

Correct assessment of effective member stiffness is essential for improved accuracy in establishing the distribution of design forces among members, as well as in computing the period of the structure.

Flexural Moment
Mn My

Behaviour of R/C

Post-yield rigidity Post-cracking rigidity Actual Idealized

Mcr

Elastic rigidity

Curvature

Flexural Behaviour of R/C Moment


Mn

0.75Mn Effective elastic rigidity Actual Idealized (bi-linear) y u Curvature

Formation of Plastic Hinges

Strong Beam-Weak Column Design

Strong Beam-Weak Column Design

Poorly Confined Columns

Poorly Confined Columns

Well-Confined Column

Shear Deficient Columns

Shear Deficient Columns

Beam-Column Joints