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A Uniform System of Citation 18th Edition

Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,

Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,

Intro to the Bluebook

Why is the Bluebook important? Because the folks on Harvard, Columbia ,Yale and Penn Law Reviews said so? Hardly . . . Uniformity the Bluebook sets the

standard. designed to provide the

information necessary to lead the reader directly to the specific items cited
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As per the Compilation made by the editors of the Columbia Law Review, the Harvard Law Review, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review and The Yale Law Journal

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Citation Sentences and Clauses

A citation may be inserted into the text in

one of two ways : as a stand-alone citation sentence or as a citation clause

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Citation Sentence
Like any other sentence, a citation sentence begins

with a capital letter and ends with a period. One citation sentence will often contain numerous citations, each set off by a semicolon. Use citation sentences to cite sources and authorities that relate to the entire preceding sentence.

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Citation Clause
Citation clauses are set off from the text by commas

and immediately follow the proposition to which they relate. Do not begin a citation clause with a capital letter, unless the clause begins directly with a source that would otherwise be capitalized. Do not end a citation clause with a period, unless it is the last clause in the sentence. Use citation clause to cite sources and authorities that relate to only part of a sentence.

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The Elements of a Citation

A legal citation is composed of three principal elements: 1. a signal 2. the source or authority; and 3. parenthetical information

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Primary & Secondary Authority

Primary Statement of "the law" from bodies with law-making authority Secondary Explain, interpret, and help you locate the primary law Includes: Treatises, Handbooks, law review articles, legal encyclopedias, Restatements, Nutshells etc.

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Organization of Federal & State Governments







Regulations Administrative Decisions

Stat., USC RCW

US, Fed 3d P3d, Wash.

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How do Sources of Law Interact?

Court interprets a statute

An earlier court decision is overruled by same

Statute held unconstitutional by a court

Legislature writes statute in response to a case Agency proposes new rule in response to statute.

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Court Structure Federal & State

Court of Last Resort Intermediate Appellate Court Trial Court
U.S. Supreme Court Ninth Circuit* Court of Appeals * = Circuit map U.S. District Court for Western District of WA King County Superior Court

WA Supreme Court WA Court of Appeals

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Legal Citation
The Bluebook: A Uniform System of

Citation (KF245 .U5 2005 18th ed. in

Reference Area)

Pate v. Threlkel, 661 So.2d 278 (Fla. 1995) Party 1 v. Party 2, [volume number] [reporter

name] [page number] ([jurisdiction sometimes] [year]).

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Organized chronologically Called: Session laws
U.S. Statutes at Large

Organized by subject Called: A Code

U.S. Code (USC)

(Stat.) Laws of Washington

Revised Code of

Washington (RCW)

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Legal Citation Formats

Public Law
Pub.L. No. 107-56

Statutes at Large
115 Stat. 276

42 U.S.C. 9601-9675 (2004)

Title United States Code Sections (year)

RCW 46.20.308 (2006)

Revised Code of Washington Title Chapter Section

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Image of Public Law

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of

1996, Pub. L. No. 104-191.

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The fundamental law of a nation or state, establishing

the organization of government and prescribing the extent of its sovereign power. Citation Format
U.S. CONST. art. I, 9. W.A. CONST. art. IV, 4.

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Administrative Law
Rules, regulations, and decisions

created by administrative agencies (federal and state). Agency is authorized by Statute

Power to issue regulations & adjudicate disputes

delegated to executive agencies by Congress via an enabling statute.

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Federal Register
Published daily Includes: proposed regs & new regs

Presidential documents

Executive Orders & Proclamations

Code of Federal Regulations

Current rules & regulations in force
Published annually
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Citation Format: Regulations

65 Fed. Reg. 3415 (Jan. 21, 2000)

Volume Federal Register Page (date)

7 CFR 319.76 (2003)

TitleCode of Federal RegulationsSection (year)

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Sample Regulation
42 CFR Part 121

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Secondary Sources
Law Review Articles
Full-Text on LexisNexis Academic Full-Text on Hein Online (citation navigator) Index to find articles, LegalTrac

American Law Reports (ALR) KF 132 in Reference Area.

Index at end of set.

Law Library Catalog vs. UW Libraries Catalog SUMMIT (both of above plus more!)
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Legal Citation
The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (KF245 .U5 2005 18th ed. in Reference Area)
Introduction to Basic Legal Citation (LII 2006 ed.), by Peter W. Martin ( Bluebook entry in Wikipedia (

Users Guide to the Bluebook, by Alan Dworsky (KF245 .D853 2006 Ref Area) Cite Right, by Charles Lipson (PN171.F56 L5 2006 Ref Area) Doing Honest Work in College, by Charles Lipson (PN171 .F56 L56 2004 Ref Area) Citing & Typing the Law, by C.Edward Good (KF245 .G66 1997 Ref Area).

Legal Writing and Research: A Selected Annotated Bibliography,

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Applying what youve learned:

L-Comm: Memos, Briefs Upper Level: Law Review, Paper for writing requirement The Real World: I am quite fortunate to have found this case in light of defense counsel's multiple mistakes in citing to it in his reply brief. In fact, counsel's citations are poor throughout all his pleadings. A few mistakes may be tolerable, but his blatant failure to follow proper citation format is inexcusable. I admonish him not to submit further briefs to this court unless demonstrating a good faith effort to comply with proper format. I refer him to The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (Columbia Law Review Ass'n et al. eds. 17th ed. 2000).
Garrett v. Miller, No. 02 C 5437, 2003 WL 1790954, at *1 n.2 (N.D. Ill. Apr. 1, 2003) (Zagel, J.).

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Taking Time to Get it Right

Take the Bluebook out of your trunk
Use the index! Judges and employers will assess your competence by

assessing your attention to detail; attention to detail is exhibited by correct citations Correct citations are timeconsuming, but when you understand the basics, you can consult the front and back covers to use as a guide When in doubt, use published articles or publicly available briefs to confirm proper citation format
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Law Review vs. Legal Memos

Rule B1: The Rule that people should not ignore, but

often do. Bluepages are for legal memos Whitepages are for law review Location of Citation: footnote vs. in-text: the pursuit of uncluttered writing Typeface Distinctions: differences regarding italics and Small Caps. See front and back covers; see Books, Rule 15, as an example
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Signals: Rule 1
Signaling tells the reader how youve used the source. The basics: No signal: Justice Scalia held that animals have feelings. X v. Y, 300 U.S. 301, 306 (1989).

Means youve directly adopted/quoted the sources assertion. Be confident: use no signal!

See: Justice Scalia was right in holding that animals have

feelings, since they do. See X v. Y, 300 U.S. 301, 306 (1989).

Means that the source clearly supports the assertion but is not stated directly. There is an inferential step Most writers either overuse or underuse see. See does not give you license to misuse the source.

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Signals: Rule 1 E.g.

Indicates that other authorities also state the proposition but citation is not necessary (can be used with other signals) Commonly used to cite additional sources that support the point (use parenthetical) For background material; usually entire book or article (use parenthetical)

See also

See generally

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Signals: Rule 1: Getting Fancy

Less Common Signals
Cf. Compare/Confer; different but analogous Compare . . . with . . . Compare Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S.

537 (1896), with Brown v. Bd. of Educ., 347 U.S. 483 (U.S. 1954). Contra Cited authority directly states the contrary of the proposition But see Cited authority clearly supports a proposition contrary to the main proposition ORDER OF AUTHORITIES, 1.4 (and the room for discretion when a source is more important or more helpful)
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Parentheticals: B11, 1.5, 5, 10.6

Should be used when:

-the relevance of what youre citing might not be clear to the reader -begin usually with a gerund/present participle: holding, distinguishing, reasoning, noting, elucidating, rationalizing, arguing, stating . . . > i.e. Cooper v. Dupnik, 924 F.2d 1520, 153031 (9th Cir. 1991) (holding that the police officers actions did not rise to level of due process violation). -can also use direct quote in parenthetical explanation, begin with capital, use brackets if need be. Period in and outside of parentheses. >i.e. X v. Y, 300 U.S. 301, 303 (2009) ([A]ll puppies . . . have feelings.). >never, ever disturb the sources text: use brackets - Hybrid parenthetical explanations, like gerund parentheticals, period outside: >i.e. X v. Y, 300 U.S. 301, 309 (distinguishing fish from monkeys because [f]ish do not breathe air).

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More Parenthetical Excitement

Rule 5.2: (emphasis added), (emphasis in original), (citation omitted)
Attribute quotes to original source when practicable, avoid the game of

telephone, use (quoting, citing . . . ) Rule 9: (54 decision) (Roberts, C.J., dissenting) 10.6.3 Order: When using multiple parentheticals, keep this order in mind: weight of authority (63 decision) (dissenting?), quoting/citing, explanatory If an explanatory parenthetical contains text that itself requires a quoting or citing parenthetical, the two parentheticals should be nested:
Cooper v. Dupnik, 924 F.2d 1520, 1530-31 (9th Cir. 1991) (holding that the

police officers actions did not rise to level of due process violation (quoting Weissman v. CIA, 565 F.2d 692, 695 (D.C. Cir. 1977)))
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Cases and Statutes

Meritor Savings Bank versus Vinson Construction

Company, Volume Four Hundred Seventy-Seven, United States Reports, Beginning on page 57, Citing to page 60 through 63, Case is from 1986

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Found at R10 in the BlueBook
Start with the partys names Look to rule 10.2 of the BlueBook 10.2.2 Concerns abbreviation of case/party names and citations Go to T.6 in the back of the BlueBook Match any names with the proper abbreviations in T.6 Using rules 10.2 and T.6, The correct citation of the party names would be: Meritor Sav. Bank v. Vinson Constr. Co.
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Cases . . . Citing the Reporter

Start with Rule 10.3 to determine how to cite reporters and other

sources. 10.3 sends you to T.1 Table 1 explains how to cite all U.S. court decisions, both federal and state. Since the case is a U.S. Supreme Court decision, look under T1.1 (federal) and find United States Reports. It is cited as U.S. Return to Rule 10 which explains the order of the volume, reporter, and page So we have: 477 U.S. 57 *Remember you always put the first page of the case after the reporterto draw attention to a certain idea, you place the page number after the comma. After the page numbers are clear, you insert parentheses and the date of the decisionremember to always follow up with a period.
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Heres the Cite:

Meritor Sav. Bank v. Vinson Constr. Co., 477 U.S. 57,

60-63 (1986). But keep in mind: use short cites later on in the same document; also, try to avoid in-sentence full cites. Common slip-ups:
Fla. 3d DCA vs. Fla. 3rd DCA; 2d Cir. vs. 2nd Cir.

F. Appx vs. Fed. Appx.

So. 2d. v. So.2d ; F.3d vs. F. 3d; F. Supp. 2d vs. F.Supp.2d
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Try citing this case:

Northeastern Mountain Development Organization versus Coalition of Appalachian Environmental Engineers, decided 1982, found at page 1832 of volume 296 of the second federal supplement, a bankruptcy decision from the Northern District of West Virginia subsequently reversed by the Fourth Circuit in 1984 en banc at volume 573 of the third federal reporter at page 702. You want to pincite to footnote 7 of the lower court opinion at page 1836.

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Ne. Mountain Dev. Org. v. Coal. of Appalachian Envtl. Engrs, 296 F. Supp. 2d 1832, 1836 n.7 (Bankr. N.D. W. Va. 1982), revd en banc, 573 F.3d 702 (4th Cir. 1984).

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The 2000 version of Title TwentyEight, United States

Code, Section Twelve NinetyTwo

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Citation for 1292

Looking to rule 12, the Bluebook states that one always uses the title number first, followed by the abbreviation of the code cited. Look to table 1 for the abbreviations for federal statutes. United States Code is cited U.S.C. Using your abbreviation from table 1, you can return to rule 12 and cite the statute Final Product: 28 U.S.C. 1292 (2000). Florida example: Fla. Stat. 57.105 (2005). Make the section symbol () with Alt+0167 Short cites: Do not use at, i.e. Id. 1293.
Things to look out for:
If there is an official name for the act, it needs to go before the title number and must

followed by a comma. Usually need not worry about this for United States Code citations. If you are citing more than one section, you need to use two subsection characters followed by the sections you are citing: 12911292 But note that this is not the rule if you are just citing multiple subsections ((a)(b))
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Try citing this statute:

Obamacare Public Law # 111-148 which is located in the session laws at page 119 of volume 124 and is called the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and will be codified at various sections in title 42 of the United States Code

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Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Pub. L. No. 111148, 124 Stat. 119 (2010) (to be codified in scattered sections of 42 U.S.C.).

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Books and Periodicals.

Books: Rule 15 Periodicals: Rule 16

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Author (books)
Full name as it appears in publication

Jr. (s) and III (s), etc.

Do not include: Dr. or Prof. (or other designations) Remember, differences between law review and

memo writing, always keep in mind . . .

In law reviews, author name is small caps In legal memoranda, author name is not in small caps
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Small Caps
On a PC:
Font . . . Effects Small Caps
*Shortcut! Control+Shift+K

On a Mac:
Format . . . Font Small Caps


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Two Authors
As they are listed on page, separated by an &


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More than two?

Short way: First authors name, followed by et al. NOTE: ET AL. is in small caps in law reviews. John Smith et al. Long way: List all names Separate each with a , except the last w/ an & Tommy Callihan, John Smith, Jr. & Jane Doe

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Cite full title as appears on page
RULE 8 for capitalization Do not omit or abbreviate words in the title

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Special Cites
RULE 15.8: Special Citation Forms
Blacks Law Dictionary 712 (8th ed. 2004).

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Try citing this book:

Sebastian Ibis is the only author. Published in 2005. The book is titled Its Great to be a Miami Hurricane. Referring to page 56.

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Court Documents- Sebastian Ibis, Its Great to be a

Miami Hurricane 56 (2005). Law Review- Sebastian Ibis, Its Great to be a Miami Hurricane 56 (2005).

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Author [Periodicals R16]

NOT in small caps
John Smith, Jr.

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Cite as seen on page (same as books) BUT


John Smith, Jr., One-L Year Is Fun

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Periodicals cont.
THE INVERSE RULE When the title includes text that will be in italics in the main text of the paper, you will NOT use italics in that portion Ex: John Smith, Jr., One-L Year Is Fun? An Essay on The Bramble Bush, 12 U. Miami L. Rev. 478, 485 (2010). Name of law review is small caps! If journal issues are not consecutively paginated, cite the date or issue number if date not available. Rule 16.5.

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RULE 16.6
Generally, same as periodicals . . .
BUT (if necessary) include the designation after the author Op-Ed Letter to the Editor Editorial Ex: William J. Clinton, Op-Ed., AIDS is Not a Death Sentence, N.Y. Times, Dec. 1, 2002, 4, at 9.

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Why? Bluebook yes! Westlaw/Lexis noooooooooo

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Try citing this law review article:

Published in 2005 in the Oregon Law Review. Helen Anderson is the author. Article begins on page 899. Journal volume number 83. The title is The Freedom to Speak and the Freedom to Listen: the Admissibility of the Criminal Defendants Taste in Entertainment. Referring to page 900.

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Court Documents- Helen Anderson, The Freedom to

Speak and the Freedom to Listen: the Admissibility of the Criminal Defendants Taste in Entertainment, 83 Or. L. Rev. 899, 900 (2005). Law Review - Helen Anderson, The Freedom to Speak and the Freedom to Listen: the Admissibility of the Criminal Defendants Taste in Entertainment, 83 Or. L. Rev. 899, 900 (2005).

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Quotations, Rule 5
Every word, mark, and character matters
If quotation is 50 words or more, block quote. Ellipsis determined by what & where youre omitting

Four dots separated by spaces if omitting whole paragraphs Three dots for omitting sections of sentences, but be mindful of the end-ofsentence punctuation!

Brackets [Sic] Ex. Human error was the cause of the plain [sic] crash. Emphasis added Use smart quotes. instead of "

Ex: [T]he fact that individuals define themselves . . . comes from the freedom to choose their paths. . . . And this is, of course, is against better judgment[]. Kelly v. State, 465 So. 2d at 323 (emphasis added).

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Singles are social (F., S.)
Numbers are social (2d, 3d) Not single or a number? (Fed., Supp., Fla.) need space on

all sides

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Short-Form Citations
Page 72: Index of Specific Short Forms
Once you have provided one full citation to an authority, you are free to use a short form in later citations to the same authority, as long as:
(i)it will be clear to the reader from the short form what is being

referenceddo not short cite to United States or Trusteethese are common party names, use obscure names like Huckstable; (ii)the earlier full citation falls in the same general discussion; (iii)the reader will have little trouble quickly locating the full citation; and (iv) the earlier full citation is within the preceding five footnotes if a law review article (five footnote rule).

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Short-Form: Cases
Johnson v. Davis, 480 So. 2d 625 (Fla. 1985).
Johnson, 480 So. 2d at 627.
Points reader to specific page(s). Use the name of the first party unless that party is a geographical or governmental unit or

other common litigant.

480 So. 2d at 627.

Dont need to put the case name in the citation if it is abundantly clear from the proposition what case

youre referencing (for example, you just included the case name in the sentence youre citing).

Id. at 627.
Id. may be used when citing the immediately preceding authority, but only when the

immediately preceding citation contains only one authority. Readers cannot tell which source you are citing again. Also, do not use id. when the previous footnote is a supra or infra.
Johnson, 480 So. 2d 625.
If citing the entire decision, and not specific page(s).
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Short-Form: Statutes
42 U.S.C. 1983 (2000). becomes . . . 42 U.S.C. 1983. 1983. Del. Code Ann. tit. 28, 1701 (1999). becomes . . .
tit. 28, 1701. 1701.
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Use supra to refer back to material that has already been cited (unless

id. is appropriate or supra is inappropriate for the authority).

Supra may be used to refer to authorities such as legislative hearings; books;

pamphlets; reports; unpublished materials; and treaties.

Supra may not be used to refer to authorities such as cases, statutes,

constitutions, restatements, model codes, or regulations, except in extraordinary circumstances, such as when the name of the authority is extremely long.
Supra form generally consists of the last name of the author of the work,

followed by a comma and the word supra. Indicate any particular manner in which the subsequent citation differs from the former.
Example: Williams, supra note 18, at 6.
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Use infra to refer to material that appears later in the piece. Example:
See discussion infra Part II.B.2. See infra pp. 10607. See infra p. 50 and note 100.

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Hereinafter (supras buddy)

Hereinafter is commonly helpful for long acronyms or

any long names that are used subsequently and should be shortened, for example, suppose there was a longwinded fictional treaty at footnote 99: The North American Treaty Regarding the Production and Sale of Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatuses, art. 6, Apr. 30, 1983, 63 Stat. 2242, 34 U.N.T.S. 244 [hereinafter Scuba Treaty]. If you want to refer to article 6 of this treaty again, just write Scuba Treaty, supra note 99. If you want to refer to other articles, you can simply write Scuba Treaty, supra note 99, at art. 7.
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Internet Sources (Rule 18.2)

Cite to the internet when:

a) the information is only available on the internet and not in printed form, in which case a direct citation is used (do not use available at), or

b) the content online is the same as the printed version (i.e. a pdf version) and the internet version will improve access to the citation, in which case a parallel citation is used (use available at).
Note: Normally, the url citation provided should take the reader to the

exact page that the material you are citing to is found, not to a home page or intervening page of links (Rule 18.2.2(d))

Ex: Not:, Business Section

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What people commonly do

Most people just come up with a title, then use

available at and then paste the URL to cite a website. This isnt the right way of doing things. Lots of examples in the Table on page 164 NO hyperlinks in your footnotes

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Direct Citations to Internet Sources (Rule 18.2.3)

Try to follow the same rules for whatever kind of source you are citing to

Ex: Author, Title, Publication written the same way for an online news source (R 16.6)
John Thomas, How to Play Guitar Like a Pro, Glide Magazine(Nov. 4, 2008, 10:04 AM),

The only difference is that the date will be in parenthesis & there may not be a page number to cite. Often, an author will not be listed. It is okay to just cite the article name and source.

You should always include a main page title. Dont just cite to the web address.

Ex: Dunkin Donuts, (last visited Dec. 18, 2003).

Dates when available, include the publication date (and time if also available). If there is no publication date, use last updated or last modified. When material is otherwise undated, use last visited.
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Parallel Citations to Internet Sources

(Rule 18.2.3)
Use the regular citation for whatever kind of source the original

is Then separate that citation from the internet citation with a comma and available at in italics, followed by no comma & the url
Ex: Am. Mining Cong. v. U.S. Army Corps of Engrs, No. CIV.A. 93-

1754 SSH (D.D.C. Jan. 23, 1997) (emphasis added) (citing James v. Perry, 285 U.S. 360 (1944)), available at

If the citation requires parentheticals, place the available at after those are done. In other words, the available at comes after the full source is completely cited.
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Cases only when unreported.

at *1 Gibbs v. Frank , No. 02-3924, 2004 U.S. App. LEXIS 21357, at *18 (3d Oct. 14, 2004). Shelton v. City of Manhattan Beach, No. B171606, 2004 WL 2163741, (Cal. Ct. App. Sept. 28, 2004).

Laws if citing to annotated version.

42 U.S.C.A. 1983 (West 2006) 42 U.S.C.S. 1983 (LexisNexis 1995 & Supp. 2006)

Periodicals if you cant find anywhere else.

T.R. Fehrenbach, TVs Alamo Tale Fairly Accurate, San Antonio Express-News, Mar. 17, 1996, at A1, available at 1996 WL 2824823.
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Try citing this internet source:

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David Lat, The Eyes of the Law: Justices Eat Pizza Too, ABOVE THE LAW (Oct. 18, 2010, 11:23 AM), http://abovethe

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How to deal with Citation & Bibliography

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Foot note should be used only where really necessary, or

where the information, though important, can not be incorporated in the text, without interfering its continuity and flow. Reference in the text to the foot note is shown by an indication inserted at the point from where the reference is made. The indication also serves to identify the particular footnote referred to. The super script system should be followed for indicating such references in the text.

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In the super script system an index no. consisting of an Indian numeral, is placed just above the line at the point of the text from where the reference is made. The information in the footnotes to which the index no. refers also carries the identical number. The footnote references starts from 1 (one) and is continued consecutively throughout the entire article

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Index Number in the Text:

The index numbers consist of Indian numerals only; they should not be enclosed within brackets, or followed by a slash, and no full stop is to be placed after them The index numbers are numbered consecutively, and if a new index number is to be introduced, or a number is to be deleted, the whole sequence has to be renumbered, and the numbers in the footnotes changed, too. No gap in the sequence of numbers is permissible; and neither can the references be numbered as 1.1, 1a, etc., to accommodate a new reference. Only one index number is given at a particular point in the text. If there is more than one reference to it, all of them are grouped under that number in the footnote.
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Placement of the Index Number

The index number is placed at the exact point from which the reference is to be made to the footnote. In the case of a quotation, however the index

number is placed at the end of a quoted matter, whether the quotation is run on in the, or given as a block quotation. In a run on quotation, the index number is placed outside the closing quotation mark.

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Index Number in the Table: Instead of the numerals, only

typographical symbols, or alphabets, are used in the tables for the footnotes, so that there is no confusion with the data. The usual symbols used are asterisk (*) and double asterisk (**) or the alphabets: a, b, c etc. The corresponding footnotes are also similarly marked, and they precede the numbered footnotes, if the table appears on the same page as the text.

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Types of footnotes
The following types of footnotes, or notes, are commonly used 1. Content Notes. 2. Reference Notes. 3. Bibliographical, or Citation Notes.

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1 Content note:
Content notes are used for supplementing, clarifying, elucidating

information beyond limits permissible in the text. The content notes should be brief, and used only where the information can not be included in the text. Supplementary Information: Supplementary information which can not be included in the running text, but is nevertheless relevant and deserves to be pointed out, can be given as footnote. Biographic information: Biographical information can be given as a footnote, if information would look out of place in the text.

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Names: Real names, pseudonymous, or changed names can be

indicated in the footnotes. Places and boundaries: Change in names of places and geographical boundaries can also be similarly indicated in footnotes. Translation or original of a quotation: Translation of an original quotation or original of a quotation can be given as footnote. Weights, Measures, and Currencies: Modern equivalents of obsolete weights and measures, as also Indian equivalents of foreign currencies can also be given in footnotes, if it is not desired to give the information in the text.

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2 Reference Notes
A reference can be made from a footnote to some other part of the text, or to the appendix, or even to another footnote. A reference may also be made from a footnote to another publication where the information has been treated more exhaustively. A reference to a divergent or conflicting viewpoint can also be made for the sake of comparison.

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The following reference notes may be used. See Reference: A see reference is used to indicate that the

information has been given in the place referred to, which may be seen, and is not being repeated here. Examples: See footnote 4, P. 205 See appendix 3 For details of this campaign see pp. 32-39. See also reference: A see also reference is made where additional, or supplementary information is being referred to.

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Comparison Notes: Comparison notes are used where

different versions, conflicting practices, or different viewpoints are referred to. Such notes are preceded by the Latin abbreviation cf. (confere, compare).

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Presentation Format
Chapter-1 Chapter-2 Chpater-3 Chapter-4 Chapter-n xxxx yyyy zzzz aaaa etc.

Conclusion & recommendation Bibliography Cases referred

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Para 1

Introduce your topic Para 2 State the problem Para 3 Particular Issues Para 4 Research methodology Para 5 Object and scope Para 6 Hypothesis Para 7 Chapterisation
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Chapter-1 Name of the chapter

Introduction of the chapter Sub-chapters 1 2 3 Etc conclusion
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Text books alphabetical order

alphabetical order Periodicals alphabetical order Websites

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Cases referred
Alphabetical order

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Bibliographical, or Citation Notes

In the Bibliography or Literature cited, information about the document as a whole is

given, while the bibliographical footnote gives information about the exact place in the document where the information can be found.

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Since a footnote is not arranged alphabetically, but in

the order in which references appear in the text, the names of the authors cited are written in the normal order and not with surname first as in bibliographies, or literature cited.

Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,


The same document may be cited more than once in a footnote, but in the bibliography the information is given only once. If a document is cited frequently in a footnote, an abridged form is used in subsequent citations, whereas the information in the bibliography is given in a full and complete form.

Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,


The following are the more common types of bibliographical footnotes. Reference to the publication as a whole. Reference to the particular page, or portion. Reference to an article or contribution in a book. Reference to an article or contribution in a periodical.

Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,


Reference to the publication as a whole

The following information appears in the first full reference to a publication as a whole: (1) foot note no. (2). Name of author or authors (3). Title of publication. (4). Edition. (5). Place of publication. (6). Publisher. (7). Year of publication (8). Total number of pages, or in the alternative the number of volume if more than one, and (9). Series note, if any.

Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,


Reference to the particular page, or portion of a book. A reference to a portion of the book contains reference to specific page, or pages in addition to other bibliographical particulars

Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,


Reference to an article or contribution in a book

The full reference contains (1) the footnote no., (2) the name of the author, or authors. (3). Title of the contribution, (4). Title of the main publication, preceded by the name of the editors or compilers where necessary, (5). Edition statement, (6). Volume number, if any, (7). Place of publication. ( 8) Publisher, (9). Year of Publication, (10) series note, (11) specific page, or the first and last page of the portion referred to and (12). The word In: to separate the contribution from the main publication

Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,


Reference to an Article in a Periodical

A footnote reference to an article in a periodical contains (1) footnote number (2) name or names of the author, or authors. (3). Title of the contribution. (4). Title of the periodical given an abbreviated form. (5). Volume number. (6). Issue number. (7). Date of issue, and (8). Specific page or first and last pages of the portion referred to.

Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,


Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,


Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,