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-Prepared by -P.Lakshmana kanth, Senior Faculty IFTK

Corduroy is a thick, rugged pile fabric made of cotton or a cotton/polyester blend. Corduroy has a soft distinctive pile that forms lengthwise ribs called wales, produced by an extra set of yarns that are cut and brushed. The wales vary in size and height, from narrow to wide and from flat to plush. The weight varies from soft shirting to rugged upholstery goods.

Corduroy has a moderately stiff drape that falls into soft, wide flares. It may be lightly tucked or gathered into a lofty fullness or shaped with seams to eliminate bulk. It requires a one way cutting layout. Corduroy is durable, but the pile tends to wear off. Used for sportswear, coats, jackets, shirts, slacks, skirts and childrens clothing.

Velveteen- is a soft, smooth fabric with short cropped pile, made with a plain or twill eave and an extra set of softly spun filling yarns. The density of the pile is determined by the number of filling yarns per inch. The weight of the fabric varies, but velveteen is usually a thick, heavy fabric.

Velveteen has a moderately soft drape that falls into wide folds. It may be gathered into a lofty fullness or shaped with seams to eliminate bulk. Used for dressy and casual garments.

Velvet is a luxurious fabric with a short, fine pile and a knit or woven background. Velvet includes plain velvets, crushed velvets (crinkled top surfaces) and panne velvet (high lustre plush fabric)

Rayon/silk or rayon/acetate blend are soft and drapable and therefore suitable for gathers and un-pressed pleats. Cotton or cotton/rayon blends are stiffer and have more body. Use velvets for garments that have softly draped silhouettes, minimum of seams and darts and no buttonholes or top stitching.

Velvets have a nap, requiring that they be cut and sewn in the same direction to prevent shading. If cut with the pile running down, it looks deeper and richer. If cut with the pile running up, it looks lighter.

Place pile down on a velvet board* (or textured towel or velvet scrap). Hold steam over it-pat it gently. Steaming helps to remove creases. To open seams, place the fabric with the seam allowance upwards steam press- do not iron the fabric. Lightly finger press the seam open after steaming. *Velvet board is a metallic pile (thin wires closely packed) on a thick fabric .

It is extremely difficult to press velvet. This is one time you can break the rule about always pressing as you go along-the less handling of velvet, the better

While machining the fabric creeps (i.e. one length decreases in length), therefore it has to be pulled tight to prevent this. Stop stitching every 2-3.Raise the pressure foot with the needle in the fabric. Allow both layers of fabric to relax. Lower pressure foot and resume stitching.

Press down pile in seam allowance to decrease bulk and thereby make the seam less bulky. Grade enclosed seams. Optional top stitching may be placed far enough from the edge to enclose raw edges of graded seams (prevents ravelling and strengthens garment edges). Use organza for interfacing. Do not use fusing.

Hem with catch stitch-zig zag or over lock raw hem edge to prevent ravelling. Work blind stitch between hem and garment using very loose stitches to prevent hem imprint. Velvets can be stitched only once- removed stitches leave holes. Stitching should be done with fine needles, preferably in the direction of the nap. Stitch size-12 spi Thread-polyester Needle 80/12

Synthetic fur
Synthetic fur has a deep pile texture on the right side which can imitate the colouring and the texture of natural pelts. Synthetic furs are usually made from modacrylic or polyester. Most have a knitted backing.

Garments of synthetic fur are made with simple seams and a loose fit. Because they are bulky, it is best to avoid details such as pleats, gathers, darts and patch pockets. It is also advisable to replace button holes with closures such as loops, snaps or hooks and eyes.

Layout , cutting and marking

Omit interfacing as synthetic furs rarely need this extra strength and support. Cut inner garment sections such as an in seam pocket or a back neckline facing from the lining material to reduce bulk. Under collars can be cut from fur fabric, lining or synthetic suede

Patterns should be placed on a single layer of fabric. If the fabric looks like real fur, run the pile down toward the hem of the garment Use long pins with large plastic heads to hold the pattern to the backing. Cut through the backing only, using the tips of shears. Avoid cutting into the pile on the right side.

Pressing-Synthetic furs rarely require pressing. One can usually smooth seams and garment edges into place with the fingers. A soft rolled edge is more appropriate on these fabrics than a sharp edge. To renew flattened pile, tumble the garments in a clothes dryer.

Seams- Because the fabric is bulky, the pressure and tension has to be adjusted on the sewing machine. Decrease the pressure on the presser foot and loosen the needle tension until the stitch is balanced. For even feeding of the layers, smooth the pile away from the raw edges and stitch in the direction of the nap. To reduce bulk, shear the pile from the seam allowances after stitching.

Hems-hems should be done by hand, using catch stitch between the hem and the garment. For bulky furs face the hem with lining fabric to reduce bulk. Closures The selection of a closure on fake furs depends on the length of the pile. Avoid zipper and button hole closures on long haired fake furs. Machine needle size 14(90) or 16(100) Stitch length 10-12 per inch (2.5cm) or 3-2.5 setting Thread al purpose polyester or polyester/cotton Interfacings omit