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ANGLES AND RADIAN MEASURE

Angles
Definition: Angle is formed by two rays with one common point.
Two rays: Initial Side The ray where measurement of an angle starts. Terminal Side The ray where measurement of an angle stops.

Vertex the common endpoints of initial side and terminal side.

Standard Position
Definition. An angle is in the standard position if
-

Its vertex is at the origin of a rectangular coordinate system and Its initial side lies along the positive axis.

Measuring Angles Using Degrees


Angles are measured by determining the amount of rotation from the initial side to the terminal side. One way to measure angles is degrees, symbolized by a small

Classifications of Angles
Right angle - When the rays of an angle are perpendicular, the angle measures 90 degrees. Acute angles - An angle that is less than 90o

Obtuse angles - An angle greater than 90o


Straight angles - Since any two rays with a common vertex form an angle, we could have an angle that measures as much as 180o when the rays point in opposite directions, and it is nothing more than a line.

Measuring Angles Using Radians


Another way to measure angles is in radians. One radian is the measure of the central angle of a circle that intercepts an arc equal to the radius of the circle. Central angle an angle whose vertex is at the center of the circle.

Coterminal angles are those in standard position that have the same terminal side.

Reference angle associated with a nonquadrantal angle in the standard position is the acute angle formed by the terminal side and the x axis.

Example
Find the radian measure of the reference angle and the smallest positive angle that is coterminal with the angle having the given radian measure and draw a sketch showing the three angles. a. -2/3 b. 11/4 c. 7.15 d. -0.54

Radian Measure
Consider an arc of length s on a circle of radius r. The measure of the central angle, , that intercepts the arc is s = radians r
s

Theorem 1: The ratio of the arc lengths t and s is equal to the ratio of the radii of the two circles.

Sector of a Circle It is the region bounded by an arc of the circle and the sides of the central angle.
Central angle of a circle is one whose vertex is at the center of the circle.

Theorem 2: The ratio of the area of the sector to the area of the circle (given by r2) is equal to he ratio of the length of the intercepted arc to the circumference of the circle (given by 2r). K s = r2 2r

Example
A sector of radius 6 in. has a sector whose central angle has radian measure /3. Find the arc length and the area of the sector.

Example
Find the (a) arc length and the (b) area of the sector of the circle having the radius and the central angle.

a. Radius 9 in; mR() = 2/3 b. Radius 8 in; mR() = /4

Relationship between Degrees and Radians


s = 2r
s = r 2r = r
the circles circumference

1 rotation r

=
r = 2

Conversion between Degrees and Radians


Using the basic relationship radians = 1800,
1.

2.

Ton convert degrees to radians, multiply degrees by radians/1800. To convert radians to degrees multiply radians by 1800/radians

Examples
1. Find the equivalent radian measurement for the angle having the given degree measurement. a. 600 b. -1350 c. 2100 d. -1500 e. 2400 f. -2250 g. 5400 h. 4500 2. Find the equivalent degree measurement for the angle having the given radian measurement. a. /4 b. 2/3 c. /2 d. -2 e. f. /6 g. 2/4 h. -2.75