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WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION FOR SOLAR POWER SATELLITE

OUT LINE
1.Executive Summary. 2.SPS System. 3.Recent Technologies and research
Antenna and Transmitters Beam Control, Target Detection, Propagation Receivers and Rectifiers

4.Efficiency. 5.Radio Science Influences and Effect of SPS.

Executive Summary
Difference Between - Communication System. - WPT System.

Typical WPT is point point power transmission.

Famous taper method.


1.Gaussion Taper. 2.Taylor Distribution. 3.Chebychev Distribution.

suppression of side lobe To increase the power transmission efficiency.

Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power


Far Term Space Systems to beam power to Earth
Radio-Wave WPT System Light-Wave Systems In a Light wave system highly concentrated solar radiation would be injected into the laser medium (direct solar pumping) and transmitted to earth and converted to electricity by photovoltaic cells.
Such system is different from the classical SPS using MPT.

WPT Wavelength Trade for SSP


ATTRIBUTE
Aperture Size Interference Rain, Cloud Attenuation Legal Issues Infrastructure Dual Use Perception Safety Efficiency (space)

WPT Using Radio Waves


Large, so system must be large Radio Frequency Interference Penetrates clouds and light rain FCC, NTIA, ITU Rectenna useful for SSP only Crops?; communications? Public fears of "cooking" High

WPT Using Light Waves


Small; allows flexible system design None, except perhaps astronomy Stopped by clouds (need desert area) ABM treaty, if power density high PV array for both WPT & solar power PV arrays on rooftops; "solar"-sails? Government fears of "weapons" Improving Improving MSC-1 and MSC-2 predecessors Lightweight; WPT can be distributed

Safe (must keep aircraft out of beam) Safe (WPT light intensity < sunlight)

Efficiency (ground) High Heritage to communications & radar Traceability Power Mgmt & Dist Heavy, due to centralized WPT

Area of Significant Concern Intermediate Area

Area of Significant Benefit

SOLAR POWER SATELLITE SYSTEM

SPS CONCEPT

It consists of mainly three segment.


1. Solar energy collector 2. DC to Microwave converter 3. Large Antenna Array.

MSC-1A: Lunar and Mars Power (LAMP) Application Laser WPT to Photo-Voltaics on the moon or Mars

RECENT TECHNOLOGIES AND RESEARCHES

1. Antenna & Transmitter 2. Beam Control, target detection, propogation 3. Receiver & rectifier

1. ANTENNAS AND TRANSMITTER

Antennas for Microwave Power Transmission


All antennas can be applied for both the MPT system and communication system We have to use a phased array antenna for the MPT from/to moving Transmitter/receiver.

Recent

Technologies

for

Transmitters

Generation of Microwave Need higher efficient generator/amplifier. Highly efficient beam collection on rectenna array. Higher stabilized and accurate phase and Amplitude of microwave when we use phased array system for the MPT.

Microwave Generator/Amplifier option for MPT

1.Microwave Tube (Cooker-type Magnetron) 2.Semiconductor Amplifier.

Magnetron
Generate and amplify high power microwave (over kW) with a high voltage (over kV) imposed. Higher Efficiency. Low cost. Unstable freq/Uncontrollable phase. Very Economical.

Semiconductor Amplifier

It generate low power micro wave with a low voltage

It is easy to control a phase and amplitude


Especially F class amplifier is expected as high efficient amplifier for the MPT system.

Distinguished from the ordinary use of the microwave technology 1.Pureness in spectrum 2.Efficient power generation and high efficient detector in a small and light fashion 3.Precise beam control

Compare the weight by power-weight ratio.

Compact Microwave Energy Transmitter With PCM

2.BEAM CONTROL, TARGET DETECTION, PROPAGATION

Recent Technologies of Retro directive Beam Control 1.Corner Reflector 2.Van Atta Array 3.Phase conjugate Ckt.

CONER REFLECTER

VAN ATTA ARRAY

PHASE CONJUGATE CIRCUIT

There are another method for the target detection is Software Retro directive.

Computer is usually used for the software retro directive.

3. RECEIVERS AND RECTIFIERS


Rectenna Rectenna array Cyclotron Wave Converter

Schematic Picture of Cyclotron Wave Converter

CWCs Developed in Russia

EFFICIENCY

1.RF-DC Conversion Efficiency. 2.Beam Collection Efficiency. 3.DC-RF Conversion Efficiency.

1. RF-DC Conversion Efficiency.


Efficiency of Rectenna 80% Decline of the Efficiency is caused by -Array connection loss -Change of connected load -Trouble of the rectenna -Any losses on the system(DC/AC conversion, cable)

(a) Efficiency of 2.4 GHz Rectenna

(a) Efficiency of 5.8 GHz Rectenna

2. Beam collection Efficiency


Beam collection efficiency depends . - transmitter and receiver aperture areas. - wavelength, and the separation distance between the two antennas Efficiency 89% Decline Efficiency caused by -Phase -Frequency -Amplitude Error on a Phase Array. The rise of the side lobe decreases antenna gain and beam collection efficiency.

3. DC-RF conversion Efficiency.

We do not have to steer a micro-wave beam electrically. If we need to steer (Guide or control). We use phase shifter without grating lobes.

Power loss of the phase shifter is 4-6dB. - To solve this problem we use low power amplifier after high loss phase shifter without grating lobes.

Conclusion
Microwave power Transmission is most suitable for a power transmission from moving transmitters to moving target than other transmissions modes. Accurate Target Detection and High efficient Beam forming By Retro directive system for Solar Power Satellite.

Compatible with other radio services and Application.


Power transmission efficiency of WPT is higher than that other mode in reference to.
Higher efficient generator amplifier Highly efficient beam collection rectenna array

Caution Note

Microwave Power Transmission is Effected on Human Health.

THANK YOU