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Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures.

Evolution Of Technology

The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques, and is similar in many ways to the history of humanity. Background knowledge has enabled people to create new things, and conversely, many scientific endeavours have become possible through technologies which assist humans to travel to places we could not otherwise go, and probe the nature of the universe in more detail than our natural senses allow

The wheel was invented in the 4th millennium BC, and has become one of the world's most famous, and most useful technologies. This wheel is on display in The National Museum of Iran, in Tehran.

Olduvai stone technology (Olduwan) 2.5 million years ago (scrapers; to butcher dead animals) Acheulean stone technology 1.6 million years ago (hand axe) Fire creation and manipulation, used since the Paleolithic, possibly byHomo erectus as early as 1.5 Million years ago (Homo sapiens sapiens - modern human anatomy arises, around 200,000 years ago.) Clothing possibly 170,000 years ago. Stone tools, used by Homo floresiensis, possibly 100,000 years ago. Ceramics . 25,000 BC Domestication of Animals, c. 15,000 BC Bow, sling c. 9th millennium BC Microliths c. 9th millennium BC Copper c. 8000 BC

Some of Early technology

Some of Early technology (Cont )

Agriculture and Plough . 8000 BC Wheel . 4000 BC Gnomon . 4000 BC Writing systems . 3500 BC Bronze 3300 BC Salt 2500 BC Chariot 2000 BC Iron 1500 BC Sundial 800 BC Glass 500 BC Catapult 400 BC Horseshoe 300 BC Stirrup first few centuries AD

Prehistoric technology
During the Paleolithic Age, all humans had a lifestyle which involved limited use of tools and few permanent settlements. The first major technologies, then, were tied to survival, hunting, and food preparation in this environment. Fire, stone tools and weapons, and clothing were technological developments of major importance during this period. Stone Age cultures developed music, and engaged in organized warfare. A subset of Stone Age humans, including Ngaro Aborigines, developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe technology

Prehistoric technology
The early Stone Age is described as Epipaleolithic or Mesolithic. The former is generally used to describe the early Stone Age in areas with limited glacial impact. The later Stone Age, during which the rudiments of agricultural technology were developed, is called the Neolithic period. During this period, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks such as flint, jade, jadeite and greenstone, largely by working exposures as quarries, but later the valuable rocks were pursued by tunnelling underground, the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were used for forest clearance and the establishment of crop farming, and were so effective as to remain in use when bronze and iron appeared.

Technology during the Copper and Bronze Ages

The Stone Age developed into the Bronze Age after the Neolithic Revolution. The Neolithic Revolution involved radical changes in agricultural technology which included development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. These combined factors made possible the development of metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of choice, although polished stone tools continued to be used for a considerable time owing to their abundance compared with the less common metals

Ancient technology
The Egyptians invented and used many simple machines, such as the ramp to aid construction processes. The Indus Valley Civilization, situated in a resource-rich area, is notable for its early application of city planning and sanitation technologies. Ancient India was also at the forefront of seafaring technologya panel found at Mohenjo-Daro, depicts a sailing craft. Indian construction and architecture, called 'Vaastu Shastra', suggests a thorough understanding of materials engineering, hydrology, and sanitation.

Chinese Contribution
The Chinese were responsible for numerous technology discoveries and developments. Major technological contributions from China include early seismological detectors , matches, paper, cast iron, the iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder.

Greek Innovations
Ancient Greek innovations were particularly pronounced in mechanical technology, including the ground-breaking invention of the watermill which constituted the first human-devised motive force not to rely on muscle labour . Apart from their pioneer use of waterpower, Greek inventors were also the first to experiment with wind power and even created the earliest steam engine (the aeolipile), opening up entirely new possibilities in harnessing natural forces whose full potential came only to be exploited in the industrial revolution. Of particular importance for the operation of mechanical devices became the newly devised rightangled gear and the screw.

An illustration of the aeolipile, the earliest steam-powered device

Ancient agriculture, as in any period prior to the modern age the primary mode of production and subsistence, and its irrigation methods were considerably advanced by the invention and widespread application of a number of previously unknown water-lifting devices, such as the vertical water-wheel, the compartmented wheel, the water turbine , Archimedes screw, the bucket-chain and pot-garland, the force pump, the suction pump, the double-actionpiston pump and quite possibly the chain pump.

The compartmented waterwheel, here its overshot version, was invented in Hellenistic times

Archimedes screw

Roman Contributions
The Romans developed an intensive and sophisticated agriculture, expanded upon existing iron working technology, created laws providing for individual ownership, advanced stone masonry technology, advanced road-building , military engineering, civil engineering, spinning and weaving and several different machines like the Gallic reaper that helped to increase productivity in many sectors of the Roman economy. Roman engineers were the first to build monumental arches, amphitheatres, aqueducts, public baths, true arch bridges, harbours, reservoirs and dams, vaults and domes on a very large scale across their Empire

Medieval and modern technologies

European technology in the Middle Ages may be best described as a symbiosis of traditio et innovatio. Genuine medieval contributions include for example mechanical clocks, spectacles and vertical windmills. Medieval ingenuity was also displayed in the invention of seemingly inconspicuous items like the watermark or the functional button. In navigation, the foundation to the subsequent age of exploration was laid by the introduction of pintleand-gudgeon rudders, lateen sails, the dry compass the horseshoe and the astrolabe.

Inexpensive paper: a revolution in the diffusion of knowledge

Paper making, a 2nd century Chinese technology, was carried to the Middle East when a group of Chinese paper makers were captured in the 8th century. Paper making technology was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. A paper mill was established in Sicily in the 12th century. In Europe the fiber to make pulp for making paper was obtained from linen and cotton rags

The British Industrial Revolution is characterized by developments in the areas of textile manufacturing, mining, metallurgy and transport driven by the development of the steam engine. Above all else, the revolution was driven by cheap energy in the form of coal, produced in ever-increasing amounts from the abundant resources of Britain. Coal converted to coke gave the blast furnace and cast iron in much larger amounts than before, and a range of structures could be created, such as The Iron Bridge. Cheap coal meant that industry was no longer constrained by water resources driving the mills, although it continued as a valuable source of power. The steam engine helped drain the mines, so more coal reserves could be accessed, and the output of coal increased. The development of the high-pressure steam engine made locomotives possible, and a transport revolution followed.

Industrial Revolution

A Watt steam engine

The Iron Bridge

19th century
The 19th century saw astonishing developments in transportation, construction, and communication technologies originating in Europe, especially in Britain. The Steam Engine which had existed since the early 18th century, was practically applied to both steamboat and railway transportation. Telegraphy also developed into a practical technology in the 19th century to help run the railways safely. Other technologies were explored for the first time, including the incandescent light bulb.

20th century
20th century technology developed rapidly. Communication technology, transportation technology, broad teaching and implementation of scientific method, and increased research spending all contributed to the advancement of modern science and technology. Due to the scientific gains directly tied to military research and development, technologies including electronic computing might have developed as rapidly as they did in part due to war. Radio, radar, and early sound recording were key technologies which paved the way for the telephone, fax machine, and magnetic storage of data.

20th century(Cont)
Energy and engine technology improvements were also vast, including nuclear power, developed after the Manhattan project. Transport by rocketry: most work occurred in Germany (Oberth), Russia (Tsiolkovsky) and the US (Goddard). Making use of computers and advanced research labs, modern scientists have recombinant DNA.

Some of 20th century Technology

Electrification Automobile Airplane Water supply and Distribution Electronics Radio and Television Mechanized agriculture Computers Telephone Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Highways Spacecraft Internet Imaging Household appliances Health Technologies Petroleum and Petrochemical Technologies Laser and Fiber Optics Nuclear technologies Materials science

21st century
In the early 21st century, the main technology being developed is electronics. Broadband Internet access became commonplace in developed countries, as did connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones. Biotechnology is a relatively new field that holds yet unknown possibilities. Research is ongoing into quantum computers, nanotechnology, bioengineering, nuclear fusion , advanced materials , the scramjet (along with railguns and high-energy beams for military uses), superconductivity, the memristor, and green technologies such as alternative fuels(e.g., fuel cells, plug-in hybrid cars) and more efficient LEDs and solar cells.

Impact On Society


Workplace Education Health sector Business Communication Crime and Legal System Family

New and more Jobs Work from Home More flexible working hours Constant training required Manual jobs getting replaced

Computer Aided Learning Interactive teaching Student details filed digitally New branches of education Teachers can teach students from any part of the world.

Health Sector
Smoothens Administration Monitoring Developing new and effective medications Monitoring and Diagnosis eg CAT scan, measuring BP. New methods of surgery.

Eases the production system Teleconferencing Preparation and sending memos and reports. Financial Reports can be interpreted easily. Product information can be read through Bar code reader. RFID enabled Asset Tracking. E-commerce

Crime and Legal System

Increase in crimes Eg: cloning, hacking New Technology-New Laws introduced. Cyber crimes in India are punishable under the IT Act,2000 Cyber Forensics Serves as a Crime Fighting Tool eg: CCTVs, Fingerprint Analysis, Polygraph etc

Family & Social Life

Connects people living in different parts of the world. Active Virtual Life-Identity Crisis Family time replaced by tech-time. Importance for traditions and customs lessening.

Cost effective communication-telephones and mobiles Connects people from different parts of the world-internet Social Networking Sites Videoconferencing

Changes in Technology

Top Ten Changes in Technology

1 Broadband: In the early part of the last decade, people still knew what a 56k modem was and boasted about anything faster. Today, the only modems people care about are cable modems and we whine if video doesnt stream instantly. 2 Mapping: Mapping only became ubiquitous in this last decade, starting with systems like MapQuest, GeoJet and ESRI, most of which were soon replaced with more powerful offerings from Google and Microsoft. Today, parcel maps, aerial and birds eye imagery are standard fare, providing an entirely new and borderless interface to data.

3 Smart Phones: Along with the shift to web browser, the ability to access data on your phone became standard in the last decade as smart phones (which I define as a phone with a web browser) became ubiquitous. Now people are accessing the datas, getting email and text messages, opening lock boxes, taking photos (though they shouldnt, at least not of their listed properties), and checking their social networks from their phones.

4 To load up a program, youd have to slam in a cassette tape and wait 20 minutes for it to load: The first computers, a CPC-464. It was so heavy you could have used it as a concrete block. A ten year gap is a bit of an exaggeration but I knew people still word processing back then on green-screened computers. When the 5 floppy disk came out, we saw that as a mini-revolution in itself. 5 There was only one computer in the house, and if there were more, only one would connect to the Internet at a time: No such things as wireless back then. The only wireless youd know of was the radio, and that would have been a main source of entertainment. It may sound like wartime England, 10 years ago wasnt that far away. Windows XP hadnt come out yet, I was still in a school uniform and the computers we used were running Windows NT.

6 Laparoscopic Surgeries: Keyhole surgery, is a modern surgical technique in which operations in the abdomen are performed through small incisions (usually 0.51.5 cm) as opposed to the larger incisions needed in conventional surgery. 7 Change from 2D Barcodes to 3D QR Codes:

From a 2Dbarcode for optical machinereadable representation of data now we a changing to 3D QR Codes(Quick Response Codes)

8 Accounting: Accounting which was done on books are now easily accessible software like Tally, Simply Accounting, Vision Point 2000 9 Blogs and Social Networking: Blogging has become so easy and so powerful and Social Networking have become very popular 10 Automation: Industrial processes which were done manually are now fully automated.

Emerging Technologies

Genetic engineering
Genetic engineering alters the genetic makeup of an organism using techniques that introduce heritable material prepared outside the organism either directly into the host or into a cell that is then fused or hybridized with the host. This involves using recombinant nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) techniques to form new combinations of heritable genetic material followed by the incorporation of that material either indirectly through a vector system or directly through micro-injection, macro-injection and micro-encapsulation techniques

Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline that takes genetic engineering a step further by introducing artificially synthesized genetic material from raw materials into an organism

Medicine In medicine genetic engineering has been used to massproduction of insulin, human growth hormones, follistim (for treating infertility), human albumin, monoclonal antibodies, antihemophilic factors, vaccines and many other drugs.


Research Genes and other genetic information from a wide range of organisms are transformed into bacteria for storage and modification, creating genetically modified bacteria in the process. Agriculture One of the best-known and controversial applications of genetic engineering is the creation of genetically modified food The genetic engineering of agricultural crops can increase the growth rates and resistance to different diseases caused by pathogens and parasites.

Implant (medicine)
An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure. Medical implants are man-made devices, in contrast to a transplant, which is a transplanted biomedical tissue. The surface of implants that contact the body might be made of a biomedical material such as titanium, silicone or apatite depending on what is the most functional. In some cases implants contain electronics e.g. artificial pacemaker and cochlear implants

Among the most common types of medical implants are the pins, rods, screws and plates used to anchor fractured bones while they heal

The process of implantation of medical devices is subject to the same complications as any other invasive medical procedure, including infection, inflammation, and pain. Implants also run the risk of rejection if they elicit a reaction from the host immune system.

Life extension
Life extension science, also known as anti-aging medicine, experimental gerontology, and biomedical gerontology, is the study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan. Some researchers in this area, and "life extensionists" (who wish to achieve longer lives for themselves), believe that future breakthroughs in tissue rejuvenation with stem cells, molecular repair, and organ replacement (such as with artificial organs) will eventually enable humans to have indefinite lifespan through complete rejuvenation to a healthy youthful condition.

Proposed strategies of life extension

Nanotechnology Cloning and body part replacement Cryonics Genetic modification

Robotic surgery
Robotic surgery, computer-assisted surgery, and robotically-assisted surgery are terms for technological developments that use robotic systems to aid in surgical procedures. Robotically-assisted surgery was developed to overcome both the limitations of minimally invasive surgery or to enhance the capabilities of surgeons performing open surgery In the case of robotically assisted minimally invasive surgery, instead of directly moving the instruments, the surgeon uses one of two methods to control the instruments ; either a direct telemanipulator or by computer control.

General surgery Cardiothoracic surgery Cardiology Gastrointestinal surgery Gynaecology Neurosurgery Orthopaedics Paediatrics Radio surgery Urology Vascular surgery

Artificial brain
Artificial brain is a term commonly used in the media to describe research that aims to develop software and hardware with cognitive abilities similar to those of the animal or human brain. Research investigating "artificial brains" plays three important roles in science: 1. An ongoing attempt by neuroscientists to understand how the human brain works, known as cognitive neuroscience 2. A thought experiment in the philosophy of artificial intelligence, demonstrating that it is possible, in theory, to create a machine that has all the capabilities of a human being. 3. A serious long term project to create machines capable of general intelligent action or Artificial General Intelligence.

Three-dimensional integrated circuit

In electronics, a three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D IC, 3D-IC, or 3-D IC) is a chip in which two or more layers of active electronic components are integrated both vertically and horizontally into a single circuit. The semiconductor industry is pursuing this promising technology in many different forms, but it is not yet widely used

3D packaging saves space by stacking separate chips in a single package

Footprint More functionality fits into a small space. Cost Partitioning a large chip into multiple smaller dies with 3D stacking can improve the yield and reduce the fabrication cost if individual dies are tested separately. Heterogeneous integration Circuit layers can be built with different processes, or even on different types of wafers. Shorter interconnect The average wire length is reduced. Power Keeping a signal on-chip can reduce its power consumption by 10-100 times. Shorter wires also reduce power consumption. Reducing the power budget leads to less heat generation, extended battery life, and lower cost of operation. Design The vertical dimension adds a higher order of connectivity and offers new design possibilities. Circuit security The stacked structure complicates attempts to reverse engineer the circuitry

In telecommunications, 4G is the fourth generation of cell phone mobile communications standards. It is a successor of the third generation (3G) standards. A 4G system provides mobile ultra-broadband Internet access, for example to laptops with USB wireless modems, to smart phones, and to other mobile devices. Conceivable applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, highdefinition mobile TV, video conferencing and 3D television.

3D printing
3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file. 3D printing is achieved using additive processes, where an object is created by laying down successive layers of material The technology finds use in the fields of jewelry, footwear, industrial design, architecture, engineering and construction (AEC), automotive, aerospace, dental and medical industries, education, geographic information systems, civil engineering, and many others.

3D printing technology is currently being studied by biotechnology firms and academia for possible use in tissue engineering applications where organs and body parts are built using inkjet techniques. The use of 3D scanning technologies allow the replication of real objects without the use of moulding techniques, that in many cases can be more expensive, more difficult, or too invasive to be performed; particularly with precious or delicate cultural heritage artifacts where the direct contact of the moulding substances could harm the surface of the original object.

Industrial use Rapid prototyping Rapid manufacturing

Ultra High Definition Television

Ultra High Definition Television (or UHDTV) is a digital video format currently proposed by NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories. It has a resolution about 16 times the number of pixels of existing HDTV, which brings it to roughly the detail level of IMAX UHDTV's main tentative specifications: Number of pixels: 7,680 4,320 Aspect ratio: 16:9 Viewing distance: 0.75H Viewing angle: 100 Frame rate: 120Hz progressive Bit depth: 12 Audio system: 22.2ch

Laser video display

Laser colour television (in short, Laser TV), or Laser colour video display utilizes two or more individually modulated optical (laser) rays of different colours to produce a combined spot that is scanned and projected across the image plane by a polygon-mirror system or less effectively by optoelectronic means to produce a colour-television display. The special case of one ray reduces the system to a monochromatic display as, for example, in black-andwhite television. This principle applies to a display as well as to a (front or rear) projection technique with lasers (a laser video projector).

Laser video display

Display Characteristics
Maintain full power output for the lifespan of the laser; the picture quality won't degrade Have a very wide colour gamut, which can produce up to 90% of the colours a human eye can perceive Capable of displaying 3D stereoscopic video Can be projected onto any depth or shape surface while maintaining focus.

An electronic nose is a device intended to detect odors or flavors. The expression electronic sensing refers to the capability of reproducing human senses using sensor arrays and pattern recognition systems.

Electronic nose

The electronic nose was developed in order to mimic human olfaction that functions as a non- separative mechanism: i.e. an odour / flavour is perceived as a global fingerprint. Essentially the instrument consists of head space sampling, sensor array, and pattern recognition modules, to generate signal pattern that are used for characterizing odours. Electronic noses include three major parts: a sample delivery system, a detection system, a computing system.

In quality control laboratories for at line quality control such as: Conformity of raw materials, intermediate and final products Batch to batch consistency Detection of contamination, spoilage, adulteration In process and production departments: Managing raw material variability Comparison with a reference product Measurement and comparison of the effects of manufacturing process on products

Flexible electronics
Flexible electronics, also known as flex circuits, is a technology for assembling electronic circuits by mounting electronic devices on flexible plastic substrates, such as polyimide, PEEK or |transparent conductive polyester film. Additionally, flex circuits can be screen printed silver circuits on polyester. Flexible electronic assemblies may be manufactured using identical components used for rigid printed circuit boards, allowing the board to conform to a desired shape, or to flex during its use.
An Olympus Stylus camera without the case, showing the flex circuit assembly.

FPCs and FFCs have several advantages in many applications:
Tightly assembled electronic packages, where electrical connections are required in 3 axes, such as cameras (static application). Electrical connections where the assembly is required to flex during its normal use, such as folding cell phones (dynamic application). Electrical connections between sub-assemblies to replace wire harnesses, which are heavier and bulkier, such as in cars, rockets and satellites. Electrical connections where board thickness or space constraints are driving factors.

Powered exoskeleton
A powered exoskeleton, also known as powered armour, or exoframe, is a powered mobile machine consisting primarily of an exoskeleton-like framework worn by a person and a power supply that supplies at least part of the activation-energy for limb movement. Powered exoskeletons are designed to assist and protect the wearer.
The exhibit 'future soldier', designed by the US Army

They may be designed, for example, to assist and protect soldiers and construction workers, or to aid the survival of people in other dangerous environments. A wide medical market exists in the future of prosthetics to provide mobility assistance for aged and infirm people. Other possibilities include rescue work, such as in collapsed buildings, in which the device might allow a rescue worker to lift heavy debris, while simultaneously protecting the worker from falling rubble. Most models use a hydraulic system controlled by an on-board computer. They could be powered by an internal combustion engine, batteries or potentially fuel cells

One of the proposed main uses for an exoskeleton would be enabling a soldier to carry heavy objects (80 300 kg) while running or climbing stairs. Another area of application could be medical care, nursing in particular. Faced with the impending shortage of medical professionals and the increasing number of people in elderly care, several teams of Japanese engineers have developed exoskeletons designed to help nurses lift and carry patients. Exoskeletons could also be applied in the area of rehabilitation of stroke or SCI patients. Such exoskeletons are sometimes also called Step Rehabilitation Robots.

Bio fuel
Bio fuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation. Bio fuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. Bio fuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention, driven by factors such as oil price hikes, the need for increased energy security, concern over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, and support from government subsidies. Bio ethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn or sugarcane. Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils and animal fats

Bio alcohols: Biologically produced alcohols, most commonly ethanol, and less commonly propanol and butanol, are produced by the action of microorganisms and enzymes through the fermentation of sugars or starches or cellulose Biodiesel: Biodiesel is the most common bio fuel in Europe. It is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is a liquid similar in composition to fossil/mineral diesel. Green diesel: Green diesel, also known as renewable diesel, is a form of diesel fuel which is derived from renewable feedstock rather than the fossil feedstock used in most diesel fuels.

Vegetable oil : Straight unmodified edible vegetable oil is generally not used as fuel, but lower quality oil can and has been used for this purpose. Used vegetable oil is increasingly being processed into biodiesel, or (more rarely) cleaned of water and particulates and used as a fuel. Biogas : Biogas is methane produced by the process of anaerobic digestion of organic material by anaerobes. It can be produced either from biodegradable waste materials or by the use of energy crops fed into anaerobic digesters to supplement gas yields Syngas: Syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and other hydrocarbons is produced by partial combustion of biomass, that is, combustion with an amount of oxygen that is not sufficient to convert the biomass completely to carbon dioxide and water. The resulting gas mixture, syngas, is more efficient than direct combustion of the original biofuel; more of the energy contained in the fuel is extracted.

Hydrogen economy
The hydrogen economy is a proposed system of delivering energy using hydrogen Hydrogen advocates promote hydrogen as a potential fuel for motive power (including cars and boats), the energy needs of buildings and portable electronics. Free hydrogen does not occur naturally in quantity, and thus must be generated from some other energy source by steam reformation of natural gas or another method. Hydrogen is thus an energy carrier (like electricity), not a primary energy source (like coal). The feasibility of a hydrogen economy depends on issues of energy sourcing, including fossil fuel use, climate change, and sustainable energy generation.

Elements of the hydrogen economy

Efficiency as an automotive fuel

Wireless energy transfer

Wireless energy transfer or wireless power is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load without a conductive physical connection. Wireless transmission is useful in cases where interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible. The problem of wireless power transmission differs from that of wireless telecommunications, such as radio. In the latter, the proportion of energy received becomes critical only if it is too low for the signal to be distinguished from the background noise. With wireless power, efficiency is the more significant parameter. A large part of the energy sent out by the generating plant must arrive at the receiver or receivers to make the system economical. The most common form of wireless power transmission is carried out using direct induction followed by resonant magnetic induction. Other methods under consideration include electromagnetic radiation in the form of microwaves or lasers.

Magnetic levitation
Magnetic levitation, maglev, or magnetic suspension is a method by which an object is suspended with no support other than magnetic fields. Magnetic pressure is used to counter act the effects of the gravitational and any other accelerations. Earnshaw's theorem proves that using only static ferromagnetism it is impossible to stably levitate against gravity, but servomechanisms, the use of diamagnetic materials, superconduction, or systems involving eddy currents permit this to occur. In some cases the lifting force is provided by magnetic levitation, but there is a mechanical support bearing little load that provides stability. This is termed pseudo-levitation.

Maglev transportation: Maglev, or magnetic levitation, is a system of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles, predominantly trains, using magnetic levitation from a very large number of magnets for lift and propulsion. This method has the potential to be faster, quieter and smoother than wheeled mass transit systems. Magnetic bearings Magnetic bearings Flywheels Centrifuges Magnetic ring spinning

The Transrapid system uses servomechanisms to pull the train up from underneath the track and maintains a constant gap while travelling at high speed

Science is facts; just as houses are made of stones, so is science made of facts; but a pile of stones is not a house and a collection of facts is not necessarily science -Henri Poincaire