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TMA 1271 INTRODUCTION TO MACHINE ARCHITECTURE

Week 1 and Week 2 (Lecture 1 of 4) Course Introduction and Overview

TEXT BOOK
William Stallings, Computer Organization and Architecture: Designing for Performance, 8/E, Prentice Hall, 2010. (ISBN-10: 0135064171, ISBN-13: 9780135064177) (For Lecture sessions)

REFERENCE BOOKS
Ramesh S.Gaonkar, "Microprocessor Architecture, Programming, and Applications with the 8085", 5th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002 (ISBN-10: 0130195707/ISBN-13:9780130195708) (For Tutorial/Lab Sessions) M.Morris Mano, Computer System Architecture, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, 1993. (ISBN-10: 0131755633/ISBN-13:9780131755635) (For Lecture sessions)
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GRADING
COURSEWORK (40%)
Mid-Term Test (20%)
- (2 out of 3 Questions 2*10=20 marks) - Date: 19-07-2012 (Thursday) Time: 8.30 p.m. to 9.30 p.m. (1 hour) - Portions: Introduction (Introduction, Computer Evolution and Performance, System Buses and PCI), CPU Structure and Function and Control Unit , Computer Arithmetic Integer and Floating Point

Microprocessor Lab (20%)


- 6 Programming Exercises (Week 6 to Week 11) 6*2 = 12% - Lab Test (Week 12/Week 13) 8%

FINAL EXAM

(60%)

- Complete syllabus including microprocessors


- 5 out of 7 Questions ( 5 *12 = 60 marks)
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PRELIMINARY COURSE PLAN


TUTORIAL Lecture sessions (Week 1 to 5) 8085 Microprocessor and interfacing
- Architecture (Week 1) (programmable and nonprogrammable registers) - Various signals in 8085 MP (Week 1) (pinout, demultiplexing add/data bus, generating control signals) - Addressing modes of 8085 (Week 2) (Reg.,Direct,Reg.indirect,indirect,implicit) - Instruction Set of 8085 (Week 3 and Week 4) (Data Transfer,Arithmetic,Logical,Branch,Machine Control) - Interfacing (8255 PPI with 8085 microprocessor) (Week 5)

PRELIMINARY COURSE PLAN (6)


LAB SESSIONS ( Week 6 to Week 11 ) - Experiments using 8085 microprocessor kit
- Programming Exercises I to VI - Lab group can be formed with the max. of 2 students ( For each programming exercise Results and Experimentation = 10 marks , Report = 10 marks Total = 20/10 = 2%)

Lab Test (Week 12 Batch A, Week 13 Batch B)


Lab Test should be taken by a student individually ( For Lab Test, Flowchart 20 marks, Program 40 marks, Result 20 marks, Total = 80 marks/10 = 8%)
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RELATED COURSES

TCE1111
Digital Systems

Strong Prerequisite

Comp. Arch.
Why, Analysis, Evaluation

Parallel
Parallel Architectures, Languages, Systems

How to build it Implementation details

TOPIC COVERAGE IN THIS LECTURE

What is a Computer/Computer System? Computer Architecture-Definition-Different Views Computer Architecture and Organization - Diff. Basic Structure and operations of computer

WHAT IS A COMPUTER ?
A computer is a data processing machine which operates automatically under the control of a list of instructions (called a program) stored in its main memory.

data CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) control

MAIN MEMORY

COMPUTER

WHAT IS A COMPUTER SYSTEM?


A computer system consists usually of a computer and its peripherals. Computer peripherals include input devices, output devices, and secondary memories.

INPUT DEVICE

COMPUTER

OUTPUT DEVICE

SECONDARY MEMORY

COMPUTER SYSTEM

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Difference Between Architecture & Organization Architecture is those attributes visible to the programmer - direct impact on the execution
Instruction set, number of bits used for data representation, I/O mechanisms, addressing techniques. eg. Multiply instruction

Organization is how architectural features are implemented - operational units and their interconnections
Control signals, interfaces, memory technology. e.g. Is there a hardware multiply unit or is it done by repeated addition?
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Difference Between Architecture & Organization All Intel x86 family share the same basic architecture The IBM System/370 family share the same basic architecture This gives code compatibility At least backwards Organisation differs between different versions

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Structure & Function


Structure is the way in which components relate to each other Function is the operation of individual components as part of the structure Description of computer or any complex system. - Top Down Approach is clearest and most effective

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Function
Basic computer functions Data processing - broad range of processing requirements Data storage - short term and long term functions Data movement - I/O process / Data communication Control - resource management, orchestrates the performance of functional parts response to instructions
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Functional view
Functional view of a computer

Data Storage Facility Data Movement Apparatus

Operating environment

Control Mechanism

Data Processing Facility

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Computer Operations (1)..


Data movement device
e.g. keyboard to screen

Data Storage Facility Data Movement Apparatus

Control Mechanism

Data Processing Facility

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Operations (2) ..
Storage device
e.g. Internet download to disk

Data Storage Facility Data Movement Apparatus

Control Mechanism

Data Processing Facility

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Operation (3)..
Processing from/to storage
e.g. updating bank statement

Data Storage Facility Data Movement Apparatus

Control Mechanism

Data Processing Facility

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Operation (4)
Processing from storage to I/O
e.g. printing a bank statement

Data Storage Facility Data Movement Apparatus

Control Mechanism

Data Processing Facility

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STRUCTURE - Top Level (1)

Peripherals

Computer
Central Processing Unit Main Memory

Computer storage processing

Systems Interconnection

Input Output

Communication lines
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STRUCTURE - The CPU (2) ...

CPU
Computer
I/O System Bus Memory CPU

Registers

Arithmetic and Logic Unit

Internal CPU Interconnection

Control Unit

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STRUCTURE - Control Unit (3)

Control Unit
CPU
ALU Internal Bus Registers Control Unit

Sequencing Logic Control Unit Registers and Decoders

Control Memory
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Internet Resources Web site for Textbook


http://williamstallings.com/ComputerOrganization/COA8estudent/index.html Online Chapters Online appendices Practice Problems with solutions Links to sites for student resources Interactive animations Useful websites for each chapter in the book

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Internet Resources-- Web sites to look for


WWW Computer Architecture Home Page http://arch-www.cs.wisc.edu/home CPU Info Center http://bwrc.eecs.berkeley.edu/CIC/ ACM Special Interest Group on Computer Architecture http://www.sigarch.org/ IEEE Technical Committee on Computer Architecture http://tab.computer.org/tcca/ Intel Technology Journal http://developer.intel.com/technology/itj/index.htm Manufacturers sites Intel, IBM

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Internet Resources - Usenet News Groups


comp.arch comp.arch.arithmetic comp.arch.storage

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References
Slides adopted from the book William Stallings, Computer Organization and Architecture: Designing for Performance, 8/E, Prentice Hall, 2010. (ISBN-10: 0135064171, ISBN-13: 9780135064177)

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