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MANAGING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

FIFTH EDITION CHAPTER 4

TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING


E. Wainright Martin Carol V. Brown Daniel W. DeHayes Jeffrey A. Hoffer William C. Perkins

THE NEED FOR NETWORKING


Sharing of technology resources Sharing of data Distributed data processing and client/server systems Enhanced communications Marketing outreach

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AN OVERVIEW OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING


Networking the electronic linking of geographically dispersed devices Telecommunications communications (voice and data) at a distance

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Table 4.1 Functions of a Telecommunications Network

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Analog and Digital Signals

Analog network uses continuous voltage varying as a function of time

Example: voice over telephone lines

Digital network directly transmits two discrete states

Note: 0 for pulse off and 1 for pulse on


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Analog and Digital Signals Modem Device needed when transmitting data over analog lines Converts data from digital to analog to be sent over analog telephone lines Also reconverts data back to digital after data transmission Abbreviation for modulator/demodulator
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Analog and Digital Signals

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Figure 4.1 Use of Modem in Analog Network

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Speed of Transmission Bandwidth difference between highest and lowest frequencies (cycles per second) that can be transmitted on a single medium common measure of a mediums capacity

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Speed of Transmission Hertz cycles per second Baud number of signals sent per second

Bits per second (bps) number of bits sent per second


When each cycle sends one signal that transmits exactly one bit of data (often the case), then the three terms are identical

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Types of Transmission Lines

Switched line system


Example: public telephone system Uses switching centers to route signals along best possible path to destination Leased from companies such as MCI, Sprint, AT&T Use direct physical lines between source and destination
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Private (dedicated) lines


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Types of Transmission Lines

Simplex data travels in one direction only Half-duplex data can travel in both directions, but only one direction at a time Full-duplex data travels in both directions at the same time

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Transmission Media

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Transmission Media Typical Speeds

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Table 4.2 Telecommunications Transmission Speeds

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Transmission Media

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Figure 4.3 Construction of a Coaxial Cable

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Transmission Media Wireless broadcast technology in which radio signals are sent out into the air Cordless telephone Cellular phone Wireless LAN
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Microwave

Satellite

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Transmission Media

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Figure 4.4 Satellite Communications

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Types of Transmission Lines

Fiber-optic cabling

Newest transmission medium Transmits data by pulses of light through thin fiber of glass Much faster than other media Thinner requires less space More secure harder to tap
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Topology of Networks Topology term used to describe the configuration or arrangement of network devices and media

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Topology of Networks

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Figure 4.5 Network Topologies Page 106

More Complex Networks

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Figure 4.6 vBNS+ Network Map

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Types of Networks Computer Telecommunications Networks Private branch exchange (PBX) Networks

Local Area Networks (LANs)


Backbone Networks Wide Area Networks (WANs)

Internet
Internet2
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Types of Networks Computer Telecommunications Networks Emanates from a single medium or large computer Usually arranged as a tree Uses coaxial and twisted pair cabling Controlled by central computer Often has a front-end processor to handle all aspects of telecommunications
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Figure 4.7 Computer Telecommunications Network

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Types of Networks Private Branch Exchanges (PBX) Originally analog, today usually digital Can serve as the central device in a star or ring network Can function as front-end processor for mainframe

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Types of Networks Private Branch Exchanges (PBX) Advantages:
Can connect ALL telecommunications devices in a building or campus Can use existing telephone wiring Can carry voice and data over same network Has a high-potential throughput

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Figure 4.8 Schematic Representation of a PBX

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Types of Networks Local Area Networks Owned by a single organization Operate within area 2-3 miles in diameter Contain a number of intelligent devices, usually microcomputers, that can process data based on peer-to-peer relationship No part of telephone system, have their own wiring

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Local Area Networks LAN Topologies and Standards Contention bus design IEEE 802.3 Token bus design IEEE 802.4 Token ring design IEEE 802.5 Wireless design IEEE 802.11

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Local Area Networks Contention Bus Design (Ethernet) Bus topology Implemented with coax or twisted pair Usually half-duplex All devices contend for use of cable Design now called Shared Ethernet uses a contention bus as its logical topology and implemented with a physical star arrangement
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Figure 4.9 Shared Ethernet Topology: Logical Bus, Physical Star

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Local Area Networks Switched Ethernet Newer variation, better performance, higher price Uses switch instead of hub Operates both logical and physical star Each device has own dedicated circuit

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Local Area Networks Token Bus Employs bus topology, no contention Uses single token passed around to all devices in order Device can only transmit when has token Central to Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP) connects robots and other machines on assembly line by a LAN
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Local Area Networks Token Ring Device attached to ring must seize token before can send a message Collisions cannot occur Usual implementation is physical star, logical ring

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Local Area Networks Wireless LAN Known as Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) Growing in demand for corporate and home use Use IEEE 802.11 standards with shared Ethernet design Requires use of wireless network interface card (NIC) Wireless Access Point (WAP) radio transceiver that acts as a hub
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Figure 4.10 Wireless Local Area Network Topology

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Types of Networks Backbone Network In-between network that interconnects LANs in a single organization with each other and with organizations WAN and the Internet

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Types of Networks Backbone network terminology: Bridge connects two LANs using same protocol Router (gateway) connects two or more LANs that may use different protocols Switch connects more than two LANs using the same protocols

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Figure 4.11 Sample Backbone Network

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Types of Networks Wide Area Networks (WANs) Communicate voice and data across greater distances Usually owned by several organizations (including user organization and common carrier) Employ point-to-point transmission Often rely on public telephone network

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Types of WANs

Switched-circuit Direct distance dialing (DDD) Wide Area Telephone Service (WATS) Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) Dedicated-circuit Leased lines Satellite

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Types of WANs

Packet-switched Shared private lines using store-and-forward data transmission Permits multiple connections to exist simultaneously over the same physical circuit

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Types of WANs

ATM fast packet switching with short, fixed-length packets Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) provide same as private packet-switched network using the public Internet

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Types of Networks The Internet Network of networks that use the TCP/IP protocol Contain gateways to computers that do not use TCP/IP Provides four basic functions:

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Electronic mail Remote login Discussion groups Sharing of data resources


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Table 4.4 Internet Applications

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DSL, Cable Modem, and Satellite Internet access services:

Digital subscriber line (DSL) service offered by telephone companies using copper wire already installed in homes moving data over wires without disturbing voice traffic Cable modem connection obtained from cable TV company using existing home coaxial cable Satellite most expensive, but may be only option for customers in rural areas
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Intranets Intranet a network operating within an organization that uses the TCP/IP protocol

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Internet2 not-for-profit consortium of over 200 universities, working with over 60 technology companies and the U.S. government, to develop and deploy advanced network applications and technologies

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Primary goals of Internet2:

Create a leading-edge network capability for the national research community Enable revolutionary Internet applications based on a much higher-performance Internet that we have today Ensure the rapid transfer of new network services and applications to the broader Internet community

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Network Protocols Protocol agreed-upon set of rules governing communication among layers or levels of a network

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Network Protocols LAN protocols:

Contention bus Token bus Token ring Wireless

IBMs own protocol Systems Network Architecture (SNA)

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Network Protocols International Organization for Standardization (ISO) network protocol Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI)

Thought to become the only standard for networking Gained momentum until Internet explosion

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

Has become the de facto standard for networking today


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Figure 4.17 Data Transmission Based on OSI Model

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THE EXPLODING ROLE OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKING


Online Operations Connectivity Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Electronic Commerce Marketing

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THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY


Carriers Own or lease the physical plant cabling, satellites, cellular towers, etc. Sell service of transmitting communication from one location to another

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THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY


Equipment vendors Manufacture and sell LAN software and hardware Includes routers, hubs, wireless access points, digital switches, multiplexers, cellular telephones, modems

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THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY


Service providers Operate networks and deliver services through the network Provide access to or services via the Internet (such as AOL, Microsoft Network, Yahoo!, and many ISPs

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