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CHAPTER 1 Atomic & Molecular Structure

Contents:
1. Learning Outcomes 2. Atomic & Molecular Structure 3. Chemical Bonds

LEARNING OUTCOMES

Atomic and Molecular Structure


1. The periodic table displays the elements in increasing atomic number and shows how periodicity of the physical and chemical properties of the elements relates to atomic structure. As a basis for understanding this concept:

Atomic and Molecular Structure


a. Students know how to relate the position of an element in the periodic table to its atomic number and atomic mass. b. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify metals, semimetals, nonmetals, and halogens. c. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and transition metals, trends in ionization energy, electronegativity, and the relative sizes of ions and atoms. d. Students know how to use the periodic table to determine the number of electrons available for bonding. e. Students know the nucleus of the atom is much smaller than the atom yet contains most of its mass
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Atomic and Molecular Structure


f. * Students know how to use the periodic table to identify the lanthanide, actinide, and transactinide elements and know that the transuranium elements were synthesized and identified in laboratory experiments through the use of nuclear accelerators.

Atomic and Molecular Structure


f. * Students know the experimental basis for the development of the quantum theory of atomic structure and the historical importance of the Bohr model of the atom. g. * Students know that spectral lines are the result of transitions of electrons between energy levels and that these lines correspond to photons with a frequency related to the energy spacing between levels by using Planck's relationship (E = hv).
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Chemical Bonds
2. Biological, chemical, and physical properties of matter result from the ability of atoms to form bonds from electrostatic forces between electrons and protons and between atoms and molecules. As a basis for understanding this concept:

Chemical Bonds
a. Students know atoms combine to form molecules by sharing electrons to form covalent or metallic bonds or by exchanging electrons to form ionic bonds. b. Students know chemical bonds between atoms in molecules such as H2 , CH4 , NH3 , H2 CCH2 , N2 , Cl2 , and many large biological molecules are covalent. c. Students know salt crystals, such as NaCl, are repeating patterns of positive and negative ions held together by electrostatic attraction. d. Students know the atoms and molecules in liquids move in a random pattern relative to one another because the intermolecular forces are too weak to hold the atoms or molecules in a solid form
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Chemical Bonds
e. Students know how to draw Lewis dot structures. f. * Students know how to predict the shape of simple molecules and their polarity from Lewis dot structures. g. * Students know how electronegativity and ionization energy relate to bond formation. h. * Students know how to identify solids and liquids held together by van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding and relate these forces to volatility and boiling/ melting point temperatures.
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Atomic Structure

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What is an atom?
Atom: the smallest unit of matter that retains the identity of the substance
First proposed by Democratus

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Atomic Structure
Atoms are composed of 2 regions:
Nucleus: the center of the atom that contains the mass of the atom Electron cloud: region that surrounds the nucleus that contains most of the space in the atom
Electron Cloud
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Nucleus

Whats in the Nucleus?


The nucleus contains 2 of the 3 subatomic particles:
Protons: positively charged subatomic particles Neutrons: neutrally charged subatomic particles

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Whats in the Electron Cloud?


The 3rd subatomic particle resides outside of the nucleus in the electron cloud
Electron: the subatomic particle with a negative charge and relatively no mass

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How do these particles interact?


Protons and neutrons live compacted in the tiny positively charged nucleus accounting for most of the mass of the atom The negatively charged electrons are small and have a relatively small mass but occupy a large volume of space outside the nucleus
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How do the subatomic particles balance each other?


In an atom:
The protons = the electrons
If 20 protons are present in an atom then 20 electrons are there to balance the overall charge of the atomatoms are neutral

The neutrons have no charge; therefore they do not have to equal the number of protons or electrons

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How do we know the number of subatomic particles in an atom?


Atomic number: this number indicates the number of protons in an atom
Ex: Hydrogens atomic number is 1
So hydrogen has 1 proton

Ex: Carbons atomic number is 6


So carbon has 6 protons

**The number of protons identifies the atom. Ex. 2 protons = He, 29 protons = Cu
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How do we know the number of subatomic particles in an atom?


Mass number: the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Ex: hydrogen can have a mass of 3. Since it has 1 proton it must have 2 neutrons # of neutrons = mass # - atomic #

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Determining the number of protons and neutrons


Li has a mass number of 7 and an atomic number of 3
Protons = 3 (same as atomic #) Neutrons= 7-3 = 4 (mass # - atomic #)

Ne has a mass number of 20 and an atomic number of 10


Protons = 10 Neutrons = 20 - 10= 10

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What about the electrons?


The electrons are equal to the number of protons
Ex: He has a mass # of 4 and an atomic # of 2
p+ = 2 no = 2 e- = 2 So e- = p = atomic #

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Determine the number of subatomic particles in the following:


Cl has a mass # of 35 and an atomic # of 17 K has a mass # of 39 and an atomic # of 19
P+ = 19, no = 20 e- = 19 p+ = 17, no = 18, e- = 17

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How exactly are the particles arranged?


Bohr Model of the atom:
Reviewers think this could lead to misconceptions!

All of the protons and the neutrons

The 3rd ring can hold up to 18 eThe 4th ring and any after can hold up to 32 e-

The 1st ring can hold up to 2 eThe 2nd ring can hold up to 8 e-

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What does carbon look like?


Mass # = 12 atomic # = 6
6 p and 6 n live in the nucleus

p+ = 6

no = 6

e- = 6
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Atoms, Molecules and Ions

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these particles, which he called atoms for the Greek word for uncuttable. They lacked experimental support due to the lack of scientific testing at the time. Plato and Aristotle formulated the notion that there can be no ultimately indivisible particles, so the atomic view faded for a number of years. John Dalton (1766-1844) performed experiments to study the ratios in which elements combine in chemical reactions. He formulated hypotheses and theories to explain his observations, which became Daltons Atomic Theory.
All elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms. Atoms of the same element are identical. The atoms of any one element are different from those of any other element. Chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated, joined or rearranged. Atoms of one element, however, are never changed into atoms of another element as a result of a chemical reaction. Atoms of different elements can physically mix together or combine 25 in simple, whole number ratios to form compounds.

Early Models of the existence of Atoms Democritus (460-400B.C.) first suggested

Daltons Atomic Theory


According to Daltons atomic theory atoms are the smallest particles of an element that retain the chemical identity of the element. His theory explains several simpler laws of chemical combination from his time.
Law of constant composition: In a given compound, the relative numbers and kinds of atoms are constant. (4) Law of conservation of mass: The total mass of materials present after a chemical reaction tis the same as the total mass present before the reaction (3) Law of multiple proportions: If two elements A and B combine to form more than one compound, the masses of B that can combine with a given mass of A are in the ratio of small whole numbers. 26
Example: CO2 and CO H2O2 and H2O

Discovery of Atomic Structure


As scientists began to develop methods for more detailed probing of the nature of matter, we discovered more. Atoms are now known to be divisible as they can be broken down to even smaller particles by atom smashers. J.J. Thomson (1856-1940) discovered electrons using cathode ray tubes. Another CRT Robert Millikan (1868-1953) carried out experiments to determine the charge of an electron (-). He also determined the ratio of the charge to the mass of an electron. In 1886, E. Goldstein observed a cathode ray tube and found rays traveling in the opposite direction to that of the cathode rays. He called these rays canal rays and concluded that they must be positive particles, which are now called protons. In 1932, James Chadwick confirmed the existence of yet another subatomic particle: the neutron. Neutrons are subatomic particles with no charge but with a mass nearly 27 equal to that of a proton.

After discovering these subatomic particles, scientists wondered how they were put together. JJ Thompson thought since the electrons contributed such a small fraction of the atoms mass, they were probably an equal fraction of it size so it was like Plum Pudding. In 1911, Ernest Rutherford and his coworkers performed the Gold Foil Experiment to further study the phenomenon. Concluded that most of the mass of each atom and all of its positive charge reside in a very small, extremely dense region which is called the nucleus. 28 The rest of the atom is mostly empty space.

Since the time of Rutherford, physicists have learned much about the nucleus. Although many other parts have been discovered, chemists tend to only work with three main particles since they determine chemical behavior: Electron, Neutron and Proton Electron has a charge of -1.602 X 10-19 C and a proton has a charge of 1.602 X 10-19 C so this quantity of Coulombs is known as one electronic charge and atomic and subatomic particles usually have a charge that is multiples of this. Neutrons have no charge and are electrically neutral. Atoms have extremely small masses so instead of using the real numbers, atomic mass units (amus) are used. Protons and neutrons are very similar in mass but it would take 1836 electrons to equal 1 proton so most of an atoms mass is in the nucleus. Atoms are also extremely small with diameters between 1 X 10-10 and 5 X 10-10 so they are usually expressed with 29 angstroms, which is 10-10.

Modern View of Atomic Structure

Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element, which is the primary difference that distinguishes each element. For an atom with no charge, this is also the number of electrons since the positive charge of the protons cancels the negative charge of the electrons.
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Most of the mass of an atom is found in the nucleus so the total number of protons and neutrons equals the mass number. If you know the atomic number and mass number you can determine the composition of that atom. The composition can be represented by the shorthand notation using the element symbol, atomic number and mass number. For gold, Au is the symbol for the element and the atomic number is subscript and mass number is superscript on the left side.
197 79

Mass Number

Au
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Isotopes
Atoms that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Affects the shorthand notation of the element.

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Atomic Mass
Today we can determine the masses of individual atoms with a relative high degree of accuracy but since they are so small atomic mass units are used with hydrogen being 1 amu. The average atomic mass for an element due to the different isotopes, the mass of those isotopes and the natural percent abundance. It is also known as atomic weight. Add up the different atomic mass of each atom and then divide by the number of atoms. Or, multiply mass by % and then determine average mass.
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Mass Spectrometer
The most direct and accurate means for determining atomic and molecular weights.

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Periodic Table
The arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number, with elements having similar properties placed in vertical column. Atomic number, symbol, name, atomic weight are found in each square for each element. Some tables have additional information as well. Can be arranged according to metals, nonmetals and metalloids, solid liquid and gases, and by family.
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Molecules and Molecular Compounds


Even though the atom is the smallest representative sample of an element, only the noble gas elements are normally found in nature as isolated atoms. All others form either molecules or ions. A molecule is an assembly of two or more atoms tightly bound together by a covalent bond created by two atoms sharing electrons. Diatomic atoms form diatomic molecules (remember 7 start at 7 form a 7 and hydrogen). Compounds that are composed of molecules that contain more than one type of element are molecular compounds. Most molecules are composed of nonmetals. Chemical formulas that indicate actual number and types of atoms in a molecules are called molecular formulas. Such as H2O, C6H12O6, and C2H4. Empirical formulas give only the relative number of atoms, they are basically the reduced formula. Such as H2O, CH2O, and CH2.
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Picturing Molecules
The molecular formula of a substance describes the composition but doesnt show how they come together. Structural formula: shows which atoms are attached to which.
Atoms are represented by their symbol and the bonds are represented by lines.

Perspective Drawing: shows actual geometry to give some sense of three-dimensional shape. Ball-and-stick Models: shows atoms a spheres and bond as sticks. Accurately represents the angles at which the atoms are attached to one another within the molecules. Space-filling Model: shows what the molecule 37 would look like if the atoms were scaled up to size.

Some atoms can gain or lose electrons to try and get the same number of electrons as the nearest noble gas, when an electron is gained or lost from a neutral atom a charged particle occurs called an ion. An ion with a positive charge (lost an electron) is called a cation, where as an ion with a negative charge (gained an electron) is called an anion. In general, metals atoms tend to lose electrons to form cations and nonmetals tend to gain electrons to form anions. In addition to simple single atom ions, there are polyatomic ions, which consist of atoms joined as a molecule but they have a net positive or negative charge. Ionic charge can be predicted by determining how many electrons an atom has to lose to become like the nearest 38 stably arranged noble gas.

Ions

Ionic Compounds
When a positive ion such as Na comes close to a negative ion such as Cl, their opposite charges are attracted and form an ionic compound connected by a ionic bond. Generally, they are combinations of metals and nonmetals such as Na and Cl. Ions in ionic compounds are arranged in threedimensional structures. The formula for an ionic compound is always an empirical formula (most reduced form) because there is no discrete molecule of NaCl. Chemical compounds are always electrically neutral, so the empirical formula shows the ratio of the ions for this to be true. For example, Mg2+ and N3- would have to be Mg3N2. 39

Naming Inorganic Compounds


To obtain information about a particular substance you must know its chemical name and formula, the system used for this is chemical nomenclature. Some compounds also have common names in addition to their chemical nomenclature such as water. The rules for naming a compound is based on divisions of substances into categories. The major division is between inorganic and organic. Among the inorganic compounds the three basic divisions are ionic compounds, molecular 40 compounds and acids.

Naming Positive Ions (Cations)


Cations formed from metals atoms have the same name as the metal found on the periodic table. These are monatomic ions If a metal can form different cations, the positive charge is indicated by a roman numeral in parentheses following the name of the metal. These are usually transition metals. Cations formed from nonmetal atoms have name that end in ium. These are polyatomic ions.
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Naming Negative Ions (Anions)


The names of monatomic anions are formed by replacing the ending of the name of the element with ide Polyatomic anions containing oxygen have names ending in ate or ite. Anions derived by adding H+ to an oxyanion are name by adding hydrogen or dihydrogen as a prefix as appropriate.
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Naming Ionic Compounds


Names of ionic compounds consist of the cation name followed by the anion name.

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Naming Acids
You know a molecule is an acid because its cation is hydrogen. Acids containing anions whose names end in -ide are named by changing the -ide ending to -ic adding the prefix hydro- to this anion name and then following with the word acid. HClHydrochloric Acid Acids containing anions whose name end in -ate or -ite are named by changing the -ate to -ic and -ite to -ous and then adding the word acid. HNO3Nitric Acid & HClO2Chlorous Acid
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Naming Binary Molecular Compounds


The name of the element farther to the left in the periodic table is usually written first. Except Oxygen is written last with all except Flourine. If both elements are in the same group in the periodic table, the one having the higher atomic number is named first. The name of the second element is given and -ide ending. Greek prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms of each element. Although mono is never used with the first element.
mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca

N2O5 Dinitrogen pentoxide


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