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c at i on

m u n i
e C o m
e c t i v
Eff
S k il ls

By. Bh
ag Chand
Jat
Why…
Some people appear to be
smarter than others?
Some people seem to be more
effective than others?
Some people seem to be more
popular than others?
BECAUSE THEY ARE BETTER
INFORMED!!!
One who is more informed is….

A few steps ahead of the others


Better prepared
More in command
Better at Communication
What is communication?
To ‘communicare’ – Latin word – to
participate, share or make
common
Sharing of ideas, feelings and
thoughts …AND INFORMATION!
Process by which meanings are
exchanged between people
through the use of a common set
of symbols.
How do we communicate?
THOUGHT/ THOUGHT/
INFORMATION INFORMATION

CODING DECODING

LANGUAGE RECIEVING
Types of communication
Why communication is
important?
Exchange of ideas/information
To understand each other
Social role of communication
In professional life, invariably, a
person who is a better
communicator is more successful!
Do we have adequate
communication skills?
Do I know how to write a formal
letter / an application /a complaint
letter?
Do I know how to face an
interview?
Can I express my views/ideas
briefly but clearly?
Do I have a satisfactory
vocabulary?
Am I aware of my body language?
Am I a good listener?
A good communicator…..
Good expression ability – good
vocabulary
Command over language – correct
grammar
Clear, understandable
pronunciation
Correct, compatible body
language
Good listening skills
What will happen if the
communication skills are poor?
The police station was right by the
bank.
What bank? River bank / commercial
bank?
The chicken is too hot to eat
Who is eating? You / chicken?
Visiting relatives can be a nuisance
What is a nuisance? Relatives? Or visiting
them?
Communication skills
Clarity of purpose
The importance of planning – without
losing the spontaneity
Communication – essentially a group
activity
Keeping it simple – avoiding
complications
Focusing on the needs of the reader /
listener
Communication skills –
contd.
Active listening
Controlling emotions
Being polite – humble is not weak
Eliminating noise and clarifying
assumptions – don’t assume; if you do,
let it be known
Avoiding connotations (indicative forms
of speech)
Conciseness – keeping it short
The importance of
feedback
Usingfeedback – Example : the
boy who wanted a lawn mower’s
job
io n
n at
te i c
r it un
W mm
co
Principles of good written
communication
What is good? – One that LOOKS good
Mental association of good looks with
quality and superiority
Classy appearance commands respect
– e.g. good handwriting – poor looks
may put off the reader
Professionalism – handwritten letter vs.
typed one, good stationary, good print
quality
Contents of business
communication
Should make interesting reading
Legible
Carefully planned – logical
presentation of ideas
Easily understandable – no cryptic
clues, no beating about the bush
One sentence / paragraph – one
subject
Contents of business
communication – contd.
Emphasis on important topics –
avoiding negatives, using active
voice, proper arrangement of
words
Using BOLD letters, underlining
important words, using italics
4 ‘c’s of communication – content,
context, clarity, coherence
Contents of business
communication – contd
Attitude of the reader
Correct use of language –
grammar and punctuation –
grammar check and
spell-check
Importance of practicing and
editing
Letter writing
LETTERHEAD
Date / Ref.No.
Inside address
Attn: Mr./Miss/Mrs....
Salutation (Dear Sir/Madam/ Name)
Avoid impersonal ‘To whomsoever it may
concern’
Subject
Body of the letter
Complementary close
Contents of business
communication – contd
Complimentary close : Sincerely yours,
Yours faithfully, Yours truly etc. Only the
first letter to be capitalized, followed by
a comma
Signature : Sign in between the
complimentary close and your typed
name. put Miss / Mrs. If you want to
make your marital state clear – does
not matter
Contents of business
communication – contd
End notations: cc, a/a etc. Initials
of the writer in capitals followed
by a colon and initials of the typist
in a lower case BSNL:rf
Covering letter and following
pages – use of letterhead only for
covering letter and continuation
sheets for following pages
Things to avoid
Too crowded letter – not enough
white space
Improper page layout
Lack of general neatness and
professional look
Lack of proper business format
Lack of a proper connection
between job requirements and
qualifications
Things to avoid
Overconfident tone
Lack of balance between brevity
and details
Too general – lack of specifics
Grammatical and spelling
mistakes
Importance of oral
communication
Only human beings are capable of
using words – importance of
speech – its use and misuse
Formal and informal
communication – the need for
‘small talk’ – formal presentations
– meetings and group discussions
Oral communication
Dyadic communication – one to
one
Presentation
Group discussion
Meeting
Telephonic communication
Body Language –what is it?
We communicate the least with
Words

Not convinced?

Close your eyes while talking to


someone!
Tips for a better body
language - I
Eyes : Maintain an easy, even eye
contact
Posture : Open, relaxed posture,
free hand movements – No
Crosses!
Distance from others: Social, close
and intimate zones
Smile: As often as you can!
Tips for a better body
language - II
Handshake : Firm but not knuckle
grinding – Be aware of the ‘dead
fish’ handshake
Proper body pointers
Warm, confident tone – not
overaggressive
Things to avoid
Clumsy entry, drooping shoulders,
unsteady eyes
Crossed, closed posture
Touching parts of your face,
rubbing of eyes
Tapping of foot
Pointing a finger
Facial expressions
n i n g
Lis t e
An e
ssen
tial a
rt!
What is listening?
Process of receiving, interpreting
and reacting to the messages
received from the communication
sender
Poor listening – major barrier in
communication
Hearing and listening – selective
listening
Effective listening in business
communication
An average manager spends 50%
of his communication time in
listening
Importance of listening in
understanding and co-ordination
Listening and open door policy
Constructive suggestions,
harmony and cohesion, increased
morale and togetherness
Listening I
People retain only one fourth of
what they hear after four days
Listening is more difficult than
speaking
The importance of silence – half
consent or to avoid saying ‘no’
The importance of silence in
working atmosphere – generally
quiet but open to talk when
needed
Listening II
Silence to suppress anger - cool
outside, fuming inside!
Too quiet people – alarming – is
there a storm brewing?
Someone abnormally quiet in a
meeting – mind elsewhere
A candidate’s silence in an
interview or GD - ignorance
Listening III
Fine balance between speaking
and listening
Often, a person who talks too
much is more annoying than one
who talks very little
Ability to maintain silence – to
keep a secret – importance in
professional and personal life
How to be a good listener?
 Stop talking, sit up and listen.
 Put the talker to ease
 Show the talker that you want to listen
 Remove distractions
 Empathize with the talker
 Be patient
 Hold your temper
 Avoid argument and criticism
 Ask questions
 STOP TALKING!!!
How do develop the listening
skills? -I
Listen to a speech and write down its
summery – helps in concentrating
Learn to pay attention to the non-
verbal signs
Learn to be attentive towards a
message that may NOT be to your
advantage
Mental discipline – keeping your mind
alert by anticipating the next point
How do develop the listening
skills? -II
Ability to focus on the central
ides.
Not jumping at conclusions
Listening to complaints – no
phone calls, tapping on the table
or shuffling of papers
The importance of being ‘genuine’
and not ‘phony’
Telephone etiquette
Very useful channel for quick
communication. Major
disadvantage- exclusive
dependence on voice – no support
of non-verbal language except
tone
Teleconferencing and
videoconferencing – savings on
time and money
General preparations
Know your phone (instrument)
Pen and pad ready next to the
phone
Keep distracters out – Closing
eyes? Standing up? Gestures?
Find out how you sound on the
phone – volume – mouthpiece too
close? Too far? Need a hands free
phone?
General preparations –
contd.
 Cultivate a lively telephone voice- resist the
tendency to talk fast
 Do not eat, drink, smoke or read while talking
on the phone
 Be extra careful while talking to foreigners –
he may not be aware of the common short
forms
 Be considerate – put an end to your
conversation!
 Adopt an efficient way of giving names and
numbers
How to make a call - I
Ask yourself if it is the right time
to call
Refrain from calling at home,
unless absolutely required
Ask yourself why you want to
make the call - can it be done via
an e-mail?
List down the points you want to
make
Keep at hand all the documents
related to the call
How to make a call - II
Mentally draft a brief message for the
person you are calling
Dial the number yourself, if possible
When someone answers your call, offer
greetings and identify yourself
Apologize if you get through to a wrong
number
When you get to the right person,
check if it is the right time.
How to make a call - III
Tellthem what you want as clearly
and as briefly as possible
Re-dial if the line gets cut off
When the call is over, thank the
person you have spoken to
After the call, complete your notes
How to answer a call
Don’t let the phone ring more than two
or three times – indicates gross
inefficiency
Greet and identify yourself as soon as
you pick up the phone – especially if
you are talking from someone else’s
office / extension
Do not allow the phone to interrupt a
meeting or something equally
important.
How to answer a call-
contd.
If someone else can handle the
call better than you, transfer the
call to her
If the person the caller wants is
not available, offer a return call
Take notes as you listen
If you are taking a message for
someone else, write it down
Handling mobile phones
Switch off mobile phone when
- in a meeting
- driving
- in a hospital etc.
Don’t force strangers to listen to
your non-emergency calls
While teleconferencing
Notify all the participants in
advance
Fax or e-mail the agenda, date
and time
Keep in mind the local time zone
while fixing the time
Be punctual
Speak slowly, be considerate
towards the others. Take notes.
n s
tio
n ta
s e
p re
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P
Public presentations
Posters
Flipcharts
OHP
Slide projector
Computer
Collage
Keeping it simple
Simple, clear language
Concise, crisp and short
Tell them what you want to, tell
them, tell them what you have
told
Preparing, leaving nothing to
chance
Keeping a back-up
Arranging your
presentation
Chronological or reverse
chronological order
Being factual, no excessive
emotions or sentiments
Courtesy and compassion
Learning without memorizing
The preparation
Venue
Organizers
Occasion
Available time
Other speakers
Audience
Age, status, relationship
Preparing the text
Length
Style
Presentation
Focusing attention
Conclusion
Power point presentation
Getting used to it
Use of appropriate fonts and
colours
Not too much data in one slide
Appropriate pictures, diagrams,
charts etc.
Highlighting important points
Power point presentation
the risks!
Not to get carried away by ppt
It is only an aid and not the
presentation itself
Power point presentation cannot
replace a good speech
Tips for an effective
presentation - I
Be well prepared – leave nothing
to chance
Never read from the script
Tell them what you are going to
tell, tell them, tell them what you
have told them
Start by looking at a friend
Tips for an effective
presentation - II
Take a deep breath
Avoid complicated language
Don’t try to impress anyone
If you must crack a joke, it must
be a harmless one
Enjoy yourself!
a i l s
E - m
E-mails- 1
Incredibly fast, can be opened from
anywhere –attachments can be sent –
very little cost- send and receive when
you want – getting far more mails than
we need
Sending multiple copies at no extra
cost – password protection – single
letter error in the mail id – mail
bounces back- tendency to reply mails
fast – foolish, angry, immature and
offensive reply
How to be mail smart?-1
 Double check the mail id. Have an address
book. Let your own id be simple.
 Have separate mailboxes for professional and
personal mail – your professional mail can be
opened by a colleague when you are away
 When you change a job, your personal id need
not change – have another id exclusively for
newsletters and commercial mail
How to be mail smart?-2
E mail is private but not
completely safe. Be careful in
providing personal information like
your credit card number
Managing your mailbox:
Reply within 24 hours
Check nail twice daily – delete the
junk – Don’t be mail crazy
Decide mail priority
How to be mail smart?-3
Mails asking for a receipt –
annoying if used too frequently –
use it sparingly
Auto reply and auto forward
functions
Mail storage – create subfolders in
your inbox
Writing an e-mail - 1
If your mail is not interesting, it
will be deleted without reading
Give a smart heading / subject
line
Brief, clear, coherent – don’t cheat
the reader
For unrelated subjects, send
separate mails
Assign priority to your mails
Writing an e-mail - 2
Reading the computer screen is harder
and slower than reading a printout –
more stain on the reader – KEEP YOUR
MAILS SHORT!
Send the attachment carefully –
graphics, visuals, ppt take a lot of time
for downloading – non-English
attachments require specific software
for downloading
Beware of spam – check the source and
have an anti-virus installed
Mail language
Check your language – avoid bad
grammar and spelling mistakes
You can be slightly unconventional
People may judge you by your e-mails
Mind your language – hold back angry
reactions
Mood watch – electronic function that
monitors the language and gives a
‘Chili-Pepper Grading’ to your mail
Mail format
Correct sequencing of ideas
Commonsense and etiquette
Not attaching unnecessary
importance to your mail
READING UPPER CASE IS
DIFFICULT.DON’T USE UPPER CASE
FREQUENTLY. Too many upper
case letters- the reader feels as if
the writer is shouting at him!
Mail manners-1
Don’t use ‘secret’ short cuts
REGD, ASAP, NLT, TMRW ,THKS,
PLS…
It is unfair to forward a mail
without the consent of the original
sender
Never send mails from other
people’s id. If you must, let him
know
If you accidentally get a mail that
is not yours, return it to the
Mail manners-2
Don’t bombard people with unwanted
mails
Carefully use the ‘reply all’ function
Build a reputation of a serious mail
writer
When your mails fail, try smarter, not
harder
Don’t use e-mail as a cover
E-mails are heartless- they can never
be a substitute for a personal talk!