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Integrated Process Design

CHOICE OF REACTOR (III)

Practical reactors Example

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Choice of Reactor Practical reactors


STIRRED TANK REACTORS

Allowed reaction processes: Liquid phase, homogeneous or heterogeneous (L+L, L+S, L+G, S+L+G). Operation modes: Batch Semi-batch Continuous

Non-recommended processes: Multiple in series and some in parallel (low selectivity). High pressure. Hazardous products.
Temperature control: External jacket or internal coil. External heat exchanger. Reflux from condenser

Integrated Process Design (Integration)

Recommended large volume PF reactor: consider using CSTR in series.

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TUBULAR REACTORS

Not-allowed reaction processes: Heterogeneous reactions (unless static mixers are used). Operation modes: Batch Semi-batch.
Recommended: Residence time controlled reactions (multiple in series and polymeric without termination stage). Highly exothermic/endothermic reactions. High pressure.
FIXED-BED CATALYTIC REACTORS

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Hot spots: undesired reactions and catalyst degradation


Alternatives: Multi-tubular. Catalyst dilution (inert solid). Not recommended when frequent catalyst regeneration is required (alternatively a moving-bed catalytic reactor may be used).

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FIXED-BED NONCATALYTIC REACTORS

Gas + solid reactions: Non-stationary conditions: difficult to control.


Gas + liquid reactions: Improve contact between phases.
FLUIDIZED-BED CATALYTIC REACTORS

Advantages: Excellent temperature uniformity. Continuous catalyst regeneration.


Disadvantages:
Integrated Process Design (Integration)

Complex hydrodynamic (bubbles). Attrition of catalyst. Intermediate performance between PF and CSTR models.
FLUIDIZED-BED NONCATALYTIC REACTORS

Gas + solid reactions (the same characteristics as catalytic reactors)

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STIRRED TANK REACTOR TUBULAR REACTOR FIXED-BED CATALYTIC REACTOR FIXED-BED NONCATALYTIC REACTOR

FLUIDIZED-BED CATALYTIC REACTOR


FLUIDIZED-BED NONCATALYTIC REACTORS

Gas phase reaction. Catalytic heterogeneous. Frequent catalyst regeneration.


Integrated Process Design (Integration)

TOLUENE FLUIDIZED-BED H2

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Flow pattern: Toluene: main reaction PF


H2: High concentration at the exit.

Benzene: multiple in series PF


Excess of hydrogen: Shifts the competitive reaction to the left (higher selectivity) Reduces coke formation. Decreases kinetics, Separate from CH4 to recycle. Temperature:

cH2 c Toluene r VReactor 1 1/ 2 r c ToluenecH2

Main reaction: highly exothermic, irreversible T high (control T !!) Secondary reaction: endothermic, equilibrium T low at the exit Inert: Control T (cold-shot and mCp increase)
Integrated Process Design (Integration)

Pressure: Main reaction : irreversible P maximum

Secondary reaction: equilibrium n=0 indifferent

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