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Client/ Server Relationship

Client/server describes the relationship between two computer programs in which one program, the client, makes a service request from another program, the server, which fulfills the request. Although the client/server idea can be used by programs within a single computer, it is a more important idea in a network. In a network, the client/server model provides a convenient way to interconnect programs that are distributed efficiently across different locations. Computer transactions using the client/server model are very common. A client is the requesting program or user in a client/server relationship. For example, the user of a Web browser is effectively making client requests for pages from servers all over the Web. Server: In the client/server relationship, a server is a program that awaits and fulfills requests from client 1 programs in the same or other computers. Internet Technologies

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Important Terms

A web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the word wide web An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and may be a web page, image, video, or other piece of content. A web page is a document or information resource containing mixture of text, graphics, sound and animation that is suitable for the world wide web and can be accessed through a web browser. This information is usually in HTML format, and may provide navigation to other web pages via hypertext links. A website is a collections of web pages connected (linked) by Hyper text clickable links. Web site hosting After a web site is designed it must be stored on a computer that can be accessed through the Internet and the WorldWide-Web. A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to make their web site accessible via the World wide web. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server owned or leased for use by clients, as well as providing Internet connectivity, typically in a data center.
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Important Terms
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) The URL is a "standard" way of easily expressing the location and data type of a resource. URLs in general take the form "protocol: //address" where protocol is something like HTTP, FTP, telnet, and so on, and the address is merely the server name of a given resource or page. The World-Wide Web (WWW) is a pair of software applications, which allows both distribution of and access to information on the Internet. The web is not the Internet but a means of distributing and accessing the information that is on it. An ISP is a company that provides individuals and other companys access to the Internet and other related services such as Web site development and hosting (web site storage). The larger ISPs have their own high-speed leased lines so that they are less dependent on the telecommunication 4 providers and can provide better service to their customers. Internet Technologies

Important Terms

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the main markup language for displaying web pages and other information that can be displayed in a web browser. HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags enclosed in angle brackets (like <html>), within the web page content. Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine readable. It is defined in the XML 1.0 Specification produced by the W3C, and several other related specifications XML is currently a formal recommendation from the World-Wide Web Consortium (W3C) as a way to make the Web a more versatile tool. An applet is a small program run on the Web, using Java, the object-oriented programming language. It can be sent along with a Web page to a user. It can perform interactive animations, immediate calculations without having to send a users request back to the server.
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Domain

On the Internet, a domain is basically a registration category identifying geographic or purpose commonality. There are seven top-level domains currently in use:-A commercial organization. The largest domain extension currently used. Edu -An educational establishment such as a school or university. Gov.-A branch of the U.S government that is strictly reserved for that purpose. Int -An international organization such as the United Nations. Net-A network organization. Org-A non-profit organization. Mil-A branch of the U.S military that is strictly reserved for that purpose. In other parts of the world the final part of the domain name represents the country in which the server is located like my for Malaysia, sa for Saudi Arabia, CA for Canada and UK for Great Britain.

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History of Internet

The Internet grew out of many developments in computer networking and telecommunications research. Early projects were undertaken in early 1960s by the US military (known as DARPA net). Started with a dozen of networked computer systems of universities and institutions, allowing computers to be shared Allowing fast communication between researchers through Emails. Only people in the government, military and academic had access to the network.
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History of Internet

In 1991, the National Science Foundation (NFS) gradually started backing off from its subsidy of the backbone network, and then allowed Commercial access to the internet. With commercial access to the Internet, businesses and all kinds of agencies began to use the Internet to communicate, exchange data and distribute information; Internet traffic grew, Many businesses spent heavily to improve the internet, therefore to better serve their customers. It started competition among communication carriers, hardware and software suppliers. As a result, Internets bandwidth climbed high, & cost went down!
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History of the World-Wide Web


WWW allows computer users to locate and display multimedia-based documents Introduced in late 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee (Geneva). WWW makes our work easier. WWW is changing the nature of the way business is done. It makes information instantly and conveniently available to anyone with a connection Communities can stay in touch with one another. Researchers can learn of scientific and academic breakthroughs worldwide.

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What is e-business?
E-business is conducting business over the Web using Internet, Intranet & Extranet. It allows buying, selling, and also allows key players to connect to critical business systems and access the information that they need. It is simple yet powerful concept which connects customers, employees, suppliers and distributors to the business systems and information that they need. Business transaction over the Web is generally divided into two categories: 1) Business -to-Consumer (B2C): B2C solutions generally refer to on-line retailing applications. 2) Business-to-Business (B2B): B2B solutions refer to transactions between businesses. This decreases phone calls, faxes communication and increases the support between businesses. Thus it leads to low cost and business efficiency.

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Benefits of e-business

Improves the business efficiency by greater market Improve time management and by reducing lag time and paperwork. Web billing and payment systems enhance financial relationships between customers and supplier. Builds customer loyalty, Reduces costs, Improves order processing efficiency, Reduces inventory and warehousing expenses.

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Exercise
(A) Define the following 1) Client 2) Server 3) Web Site 4) URL 5) Applet 6) World Wide Web (B)Write down the short answers for the following. 1) What is a web browser? 2) What is a webpage? 3) What do you mean by web hosting services? 4) What is an ISP? 5) Write a short note on HTML? 6) Write a short note on XML. 7) What is e-business? C)Write down the detailed answers for the following. 1) Explain domain and its categories in detail. 2) Explain the history of internet in detail. 3) Write down a few benefits of e-business.
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