to Physics 24.
PHYSICS 24
Engineering Physics II
Fall 2012
Dr. Allan Pringle
Course Instructor
Room 122 Physics, 3414031
http://www.mst.edu/~pringle
pringle@mst.edu
http://physics.mst.edu/classes/class_24.html
Todays agenda:
Course overview.
Physics 23: a reminder.
Electric Charge.
Just a reminder of some things you learned back in grade school.
Coulombs Law (electrical force between charged particles).
After today, you must be able to calculate the electrical forces between two or more
charged particles.
Important Note
The next few slides summarize important
information contained in the course handbook.
Please refer to the handbook for details.
In case of discrepancy between these notes
and the handbook, the version of the
handbook on the Physics 24 web site is the
official word.
course overview
Text
The text is University Physics, Young and Freedman, 13
th
Edition.
Course Description
Physics 24 is a 4hour, calculusbased introductory physics
course. This is the second semester of the Engineering
Physics sequence. The S&T catalog reads: An introduction to
electricity, magnetism, and light, with emphasis on topics
needed by engineering students. Prerequisites: Physics 23,
Math 21 or 15.
course overview
Course Schedule
Physics 24 lectures are Monday and Wednesday.
Recitations are Tuesday and Thursday. Labs take place
throughout the week. Homework assignments are being
handed out today and are posted on the course web site.
Section Changes
For the first week or two of class, see the office staff in the
department office (102 Physics) to make section changes.
Dont come to me this week asking to make a section
change, because Ill just ask why you werent listening
in lecture, and then send you to 102 Physics!
course overview
Examinations
There will be four exams worth 200 points each. The first three
are during the semester; the fourth is the final exam. Exam
rooms will be announced later.
The exams will cover concepts and definitions, assigned
problems with minor numerical changes, and problems similar
to those assigned but requiring a deeper understanding of
concepts or more complex calculations.
Assigned reading material not covered in lecture is testable.
There will be a 50point multiplechoice endmaterial test given
concurrently with the final exam.
course overview
The first three exams are from 5:006:15 pm on exam days.
Tuesday, September 18
Tuesday, October 16
Tuesday, November 13
If you have a schedule conflict, you need to resolve it now.
You can drop Physics 24, drop the other class causing the
schedule conflict, or take the exam from 5:306:45 pm on exam
day.
course overview
There are only two circumstances under which you may take
an hour exam at a different time:
1. You are involved in an official university event and have a
faculty sponsor who can administer the exam at some other
time on exam day and ensure exam security.
2. You have a lab or a test in another class (that offers no
makeups) during exam time. In that case you may take the
exam from 5:306:45 pm. We also may offer an early exam
from 4:305:45 pm.
See this memo for details about exceptions 1 and 2:
http://campus.mst.edu/physics/courses/24/CourseInformation/sponsor_mst.pdf
course overview
The Final Exam will be Wednesday, December 12, from 8:00
am10:00 am.
There are NO MAKEUPS for the final exam (the lowest exam
score is dropped, so if you cannot take the final, that is your
dropped score).
So reserve that time in your calendar TODAY, and make sure
that time remains free!
course overview
Course Grades
The lowest of the four exam scores will be dropped.
There will be twelve 5point lecture quizzes during the
semester. The quizzes will cover recentlyassigned reading
material and problems. Your two lowest quiz scores will be
dropped.
Recitations will be devoted in part to student presentation of
their homework, usually* at the blackboard. A maximum of
100 points will be given for boardwork.
Homework will be collected six times in recitation, with the
lowest homework score dropped.
*See your recitation instructor right away if there will be issues with working your homework at the blackboard.
course overview
Letter grades for Physics 24 will be assigned as follows:
895.0 up A (89.50%)
795.0 894.999 B (79.50%)
695.0 794.999 C (69.50%)
595.0 694.999 D (59.50%)
Below 595.0 F
There is no limit to the number of A's, B's, etc.
The following table summarizes the points available during
the course:
Three Exam Scores 600
EndMaterial Test 50
Ten Quizzes 50
Homework 50
Boardwork 100
Labs (lowest dropped) 150
Total 1000
Grade cutoffs will
not be lowered!
course overview
MakeUp Exam Policy
There are no makeups in this course. The dropping of the
lowest score is intended to accommodate students who
miss one exam due to hospitalization, illness, family
emergencies, mental stress, athletic events, etc.
See the Physics 24 handbook for procedures for
incompletes and for taking an exam if you are out of town
on an official university event. Also see the handbook for
notes on appealing course policies.
course overview
Important Dates
The last day to drop this class without a withdrawal showing
on your transcript is Monday, October 1, 2012.
The last day to withdraw from this class is Friday, November
11, 2012.
Drop Policy
Students with inadequate attendance may* be dropped. Any
student who has inadequate attendance, as evidenced by
missing 7 classes or a total of 7 graded assignments of any
kind (exams, homework, quizzes, boardwork, and labs) may
be placed on Academic Alert. Students who fail to take the
recommended action are subject to being dropped if a
subsequent assignment is missed.
*But do not rely on being dropped. If
you need to drop, do it yourself.
course overview
Homework and the PLC
Homework help will be available at the Physics Learning
Center (PLC). You may excel in the course without ever
setting foot in the PLC. You may need to spend ten hours in
the PLC every week just to pass.
The PLC is open from 2:004:30 pm and 6:008:30 pm. The
PLC operates in rooms 129130 of Physics, with Physics 24
help available on Mondays and Wednesdays. Individual tutors
are also available. For uptodate information visit the web site
http://lead.mst.edu. The first PLC will be Monday (today!),
August 20, afternoon only.
I had to study ten hours a week for this fourhour class!
(Student complaint on spring 2005 course evaluations.)
course overview
Regrade Requests
If you want an assignment regraded, please write the reason for
the request on a sheet of paper, staple it to the assignment, and
return it to your recitation instructor (see course handbook for
deadlines).
Specify which problem you want regraded, and provide a
detailed written statement as to why the original work which
appeared on the assignment deserves more points.
Don't wait until final grades are posted and ask for Exam 1 to be
regraded. Don't wait until after the final exam and ask that grade
cutoffs be lowered by 1 point so you can get the next higher
grade; it wont happen. Scoring mistakes (points added up
wrong, score not recorded or recorded incorrectly) can be
corrected at any time up to the start of the final exam.
course overview
No Labs This Week!
Dont go to lab this week! Labs start on Monday of next week.
No Labs This Week!
Dont forget about labs!
No Labs This Week!
Dont go to lab this week! Labs start on Tuesday of next week.
course overview
Your First Line of Defense
Your recitation instructor is your first line of defense.
He/she is there to help you succeed.
Everythinghomework, exams, labs, regrade requests, etc.,
will be channeled through your recitation instructor.
your recitation
instructor
course overview
Unresolved Complaints
It is hoped that any complaints about the course can be resolved
in a collegial manner through discussions between student and
instructor. However, if there are any complaints that cannot be
resolved, you may take them up with the Physics Department
Chairman, Dr. Dan Waddill (waddill@mst.edu ).
course overview
We dont ask much out
of you in this class
course overview
Announcements
Make sure you pick up the handouts containing:
Course Handbook
Syllabus
Starting Equations
Special Homework assignments.*
Go to http://physics.mst.edu/currentcourses/labs.html to get a lab
schedule. There are no labs this week.
Your recitation instructor will call students to the board
tomorrow. You may use your calculator, a blank handout
problem sheet, and the starting equation sheet. Nothing else.
We do understand that this is only the second day of class.
*If you lose your Special Homework assignments, you can
download them from the Physics 24 web site.
From the syllabus:
1. Tuesday, August 21
21: 6, 16, 76, 79, Special Homework #1
Todays agenda:
Course overview.
Physics 23: a reminder.
Electric Charge.
Just a reminder of some things you learned back in grade school.
Coulombs Law (electrical force between charged particles).
After today, you must be able to calculate the electrical forces between two or more
charged particles.
Prologue
Tell me some things you recall from last* semester
*or whenever you took your previous physics class
 Newtons Laws
F ma =
=
E K U = +
 laws of thermodynamics
 momentum and its conservation (linear and angular)
p mv =
z z
L I = e
f i
P P =
z,f z,i
L L =
These things arent going to go away!
in out
U Q W A =
This semester we study electromagnetic forces and their
consequences.
These forces are responsible for holding together living
and manmade things, as well as all things in nature, so I
suppose they are worth studying
not to mention the fact that the technology that
dominates your life depends on electromagnetic forces.
Todays agenda:
Course overview.
Physics 23: a reminder.
Electric Charge.
Just a reminder of some things you learned back in grade school.
Coulombs Law (electrical force between charged particles).
After today, you must be able to calculate the electrical forces between one or more
charged particles.
 like charges repel
 unlike charges attract
 charges can move but charge is conserved
Law of conservation of charge: the net amount of electric
charge produced in any process is zero. (Not on your starting equation
sheet, but a fact that you can use any time.)
There are two kinds of charge.
+

Electric Charge
Static Electricity
Properties of charges
Although there are two kinds of charged particles in an atom,
electrons are the charges that usually move around.
A proton is roughly 2000 times more massive than an
electron.
The charge of an electron is e = 1.6x10
19
coulombs.
The charge of a proton is +e = +1.6x10
19
coulombs.
Charges are quantized (come in units of e= 1.6x10
19
C).
+

Nitpicking: electric charge is a property of matter, not a thing
in itself. It is not good to say like charges repel. It is good
to say likecharged particles repel. I choose the not good
terminology here to be consistent with your text.
It would be much more convenient if + charged particles were
the ones that moved easily. So whos the clown who decided
electrons have negative charges?
Why is the fundamental unit of charge e = 1.602x10
19
C. Why
not just 1?
And yes, he really flew the kite in the thunderstorm. See here.
Franklins experiments showed him that there were two kinds
of charge, which he named positive and negative. More than
a century later we learned that negative charges are associated
with electrons.
Oh, and the next two people who tried the kite experiment were killed in the process.
Todays agenda:
Course overview.
Physics 23: a reminder.
Electric Charge.
Just a reminder of some things you learned back in grade school.
Coulombs Law (electrical force between charged
particles).
After today, you must be able to calculate the electrical forces between one or more
charged particles.
Coulombs Law
1 2
2
12
q q
F k
12
r
=
Coulombs law gives the force (in newtons) between charges q
1
and q
2
, where r
12
is the distance in meters between the
charges, and k=9x10
9
Nm
2
/C
2
.
Coulombs law quantifies the magnitude of the electrostatic
force.
a note on starting equations
1 2
2
12
q q
F k
12
r
=
is on your starting equation sheet.
In general, you need to begin solutions with starting equations.
You may begin with any correct variant of a starting equation.
For example, is legal and may be used.
A B
2
Q Q
F k
E
D
=
Dont get hung up about starting a problem with an equation
which is an exact copy of one from the OSE sheet.
To make this into a really good starting equation I should also
specify repulsive for like, but that makes it too wordy. Youll
just have to remember how to find the direction.
1 2
2
12
q q
F k ,
12
r
= attractive for unlike
Force is a vector quantity. The equation on the previous slide
gives the magnitude of the force. If the charges are opposite in
sign, the force is attractive; if the charges are the same in sign,
the force is repulsive. Also
Remember, a vector has a magnitude and a direction.
I could write Coulombs Law like this
2
12
0
2
0
1 C
k where 8.85 10 .
4 N m
= c =
tc
The equation is valid for point charges. If the charged objects
are spherical and the charge is uniformly distributed, r
12
is the
distance between the centers of the spheres.
If more than one charge is involved, the net force is the vector
sum of all forces (superposition). For objects with complex
shapes, you must add up all the forces acting on each separate
charge (calculus!!).
+

r
12
+
+
+



I just told you its OK to
use Coulombs Law for
sphericallysymmetric
charge distributions.
1 2
2
12
q q
F k ,
12
r
=
On your homework diagrams, show both the magnitudes and
signs of q
1
and q
2
.
Your starting equation sheet has this version of the equation:
which gives you the magnitude F
12
and tells you that you need
to figure out the direction separately.
I want this class to
make you hear little
voices in your head.
A sample Coulombs law problem involving multiple charges is
on the following slides.
I will work the problem on the blackboard in lecture.
Usually vector problems are easiest if you manipulate the
whole vector at once, using unit vectors.
Sometimes it is easier to work the problem a component at a
time.
The slides use the componentatatime approach, and
techniques you may have learned in Physics 23. At the
blackboard I will use the unit vector approach. I recommend
the unit vector approach.
Solving Problems Involving Coulombs Law and
Vectors
You may wish to review vectors (on your own).
x
y
Q
2
=+50C
Q
3
=+65C
Q
1
=86C
52 cm
3
0
c
m
u=30
Example: Calculate the net electrostatic force on charge Q
3
due to the charges Q
1
and Q
2
.
Finish, then
Skip to slide 47.
Step 0: Think!
This is a Coulombs Law problem (all we have to work with, so
far).
We only want the forces on Q
3
. Dont worry about other forces.
Forces are additive, so we can calculate F
32
and F
31
and add
the two.
If we do our vector addition using components, we must resolve
our forces into their x and ycomponents.
Draw and label forces (only those on Q
3
).
Draw components of forces which are not along axes.
x
y
Q
2
=+50C
Q
3
=+65C
Q
1
=86C
52 cm
3
0
c
m
u=30
F
31
F
32
Draw a representative
sketchdone.
Draw and label relevant
quantitiesdone.
Draw axes, showing
origin and directions
done.
Step 1: Diagram
1 2
2
12
q q
F k
12
r
=
<complaining> Do I have to put in the absolute value signs?
x
y
Q
2
=+50C
Q
3
=+65C
Q
1
=86C
52 cm
3
0
c
m
u=30
F
31
F
32
Yes. Unless you like losing points.
Step 2: Starting Equation
3 2
2
32
Q Q
F k ,
32
r
repulsive
=
3 2
2
32
Q Q
F k
32, y
r
=
F 0
32, x
=
(from diagram)
Can you put numbers in at this point? OK for this problem. You
would get F
32,y
= 330 N and F
32,x
= 0 N.
x
y
Q
2
=+50C
Q
3
=+65C
Q
1
=86C
52 cm
r
3
2
=
3
0
c
m
u=30
F
31
F
32
Step 3: Replace Generic Quantities by Specifics
3 1
2
31
Q Q
F k ,
31
r
attractive
=
3 1
2
31
Q Q
F k cos
31, x
r
= + u
Can you put numbers in at this point? OK for this problem. You
would get F
31,x
= +120 N and F
31,y
= 70 N.
( sign comes from diagram)
3 1
2
31
Q Q
F k sin
31, y
r
= u
(+ sign comes from
diagram)
x
y
Q
2
=+50C
Q
3
=+65C
Q
1
=86C
u=30
F
31
F
32
Step 3 (continued)
r
3
2
=
3
0
c
m
52 cm
F
3x
= F
31,x
+ F
32,x
= 120 N + 0 N = 120 N
F
3y
= F
31,y
+ F
32,y
= 70 N + 330 N = 260 N
You know how to calculate the magnitude F
3
and the angle
between F
3
and the xaxis. (If not, holler!)
F
3
The net force is the
vector sum of all the
forces on Q
3
.
x
y
Q
2
=+50C
Q
3
=+65C
Q
1
=86C
52 cm
3
0
c
m
u=30
F
31
F
32
Step 3: Complete the Math
Today I did a sample Coulombs law calculation using three
point charges.
How do you apply Coulombs law to objects that contain
distributions of charges (many many charges)?
Next time well use another tool to do that
If Q
3
were free to move, what direction would its initial
acceleration be? How would I calculate the acceleration? Would
the acceleration remain constant as Q
3
moved?