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Homework for tomorrow:

21: 27, 33, 45, 89ab, Special Homework #2

You only need to do parts a and b of problem 89.

You dont need to be paranoid about using OSEs, but dont
start a problem with a random equation from your book.
Labs begin next Monday.
If you have lab next week, dont miss it!
http://campus.mst.edu/physics/courses/24lab/
Announcements
There is an integral in tomorrows homework
( )
a
2
0
dx
a r x +
}
Let u=(a+r-x)
2
. Then du=-dx and u=a+r when x=0, u=r when
x=a.

Or look it up if you have tables that contain it.
1 2
E
2
12
q q
F =k , attractive for unlike
r
1 2
G
2
12
m m
F =G , attractive
r
A thought that just occurred to me
Any comments?

Todays agenda:

The electric field.
You must be able to calculate the force on a charged particle in an electric field.

Electric field due to a point charge.
You must be able to calculate electric field of a point charge.

Motion of a charged particle in a uniform electric field.
You must be able to solve for the trajectory of a charged particle in a uniform electric field.

The electric field due to a collection of point charges.
You must be able to calculate electric field of a collection of point charges.

The electric field due to a continuous line of charge.
You must be able to calculate electric field of a continuous line of charge.

Coulomb's Law quantifies the interaction between charged
particles.
+
-
Coulombs Law:
The Big Picture
Q
1
Q
2
r
12
1 2
2
0 12
q q
1
F = ,
12
4 r
Coulombs Law was discovered through decades of experiment.
By itself, it is just useful." Is it part of something bigger?
You experienced gravitational fields in Physics 23.
Gravitational Fields
1 2
G
2
12
m m
F =G , attractive
r
G
F
g(r) =
m
is the local gravitational field. On earth, it is about 9.8
N/kg, directed towards the center of the earth.
g(r)
Units of g are
actually N/kg!
If the last equation
looks like this, you
have missing fonts.
Could you measure g
local
with yourself and a bathroom scale?
Click here for an animated view
of the earths gravitational field.
Wouldn't your mass, which contributes to the local gravitational
field, introduce a perturbation into the measurement?
Your mass is of order magnitude 10
2
kg and the earth's mass is about 6x10
24
kg.
Something to think about: if you move, how long does it take the earth to realize it?
Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment model 01.
The Electric Field
Coulomb's Law (demonstrated in 1785) shows that charged
particles exert forces on each other over great distances.
How does a charged particle "know" another one is there?
Faraday, beginning in the 1830's, was the leader in developing
the idea of the electric field. Here's the idea:
- A charged particle propagates (sends
out) a "field" into all space.
- Another charged particle senses the field,
and knows that the first one is there.
+
+
-
like
charges
repel
unlike
charges
attract
F
12
F
21
F
31
F
13
The idea of an electric field is good for a number of reasons:
- It makes us feel good, like weve
actually explained something.
- We can develop a theory based on this
idea. From this theory may spring
unimagined inventions.
+
+
-
like
charges
repel
unlike
charges
attract
F
12
F
21
F
31
F
13
OK, that was a flippant remark. There are serious reasons
why the idea is good.
If the theory explains past observations and leads to new
predictions, the idea was good.
We define the electric field by the force it exerts on a test
charge q
0
:
0
0
F
E =
q
This is your second starting equation. By convention the direction of the electric field
is the direction of the force exerted on a POSITIVE test charge. The absence of
absolute value signs around q
0
means you must include the sign of q
0
in your work.
If the test charge is "too big" it perturbs the electric field, so the
correct definition is
0
0
q 0
0
F
E = lim
q

## The subscript 0 reminds you the force is on the

test charge. I wont require the subscripts when
you use this equation for boardwork or on exams.
Any time you know the electric field, you can use this equation to calculate the force
on a charged particle in that electric field.
You wont be required to use
this version of the equation.
F = qE
Im not mad, I tell you, not mad. The
little voices tell me Im quite sane.
F = qE
The units of electric field are
newtons/coulomb.
| |
0
0
F
N
E = =
q C
(

(

In chapter 23, you will learn that the units of electric field can
also be expressed as volts/meter:
| |
N V
E = =
C m
The electric field exists independent of whether there is a
charged particle around to feel it.
+
Remember: the electric field direction is the
direction a + charge would feel a force.
A + charge would be repelled by another + charge.
Therefore the direction of the electric field is away from
positive (and towards negative).
http://regentsprep.org/Regents/physics/phys03/afieldint/default.htm

Todays agenda:

The electric field.
You must be able to calculate the force on a charged particle in an electric field.

Electric field due to a point charge.
You must be able to calculate electric field of a point charge.

Motion of a charged particle in a uniform electric field.
You must be able to solve for the trajectory of a charged particle in a uniform electric field.

The electric field due to a collection of point charges.
You must be able to calculate electric field of a collection of point charges.

The electric field due to a continuous line of charge.
You must be able to calculate electric field of a continuous line of charge.

The Electric Field
Due to a Point Charge
Coulomb's law says
... which tells us the electric field due to a point charge q is
1 2
2
12
q q
F =k ,
12
r
This is your third starting equation.
q
2
q
E =k , away from +
r
or just
2
q
E=k
r
2
q
E=k
r
A physics 24 equation is like a toaster!
You cant expect to just shove the numbers into an equation
and out pops the correct answer.
To experience the optimum user satisfaction from your physics
24 toaster equations you need to understand what they mean
and think about what you are doing with them.
You wouldnt shove
yogurt down your
toaster, would you?
then the equation for the electric field of a point charge
becomes:
2
q

E=k r
r
If we define as a unit vector from the source point to the field
point

r
+
source point
field point

r
You may start with either equation
for the electric field (this one or the
one on the previous slide). But
dont use this one unless you
REALLY know what you are
doing! (So for now dont use it!)
Example: calculate the electric field at the electrons distance
away from the proton in a hydrogen atom (5.3x10
-11
m).
To be worked at the blackboard.
For comparison, air begins to break down and conduct
electricity at about 30 kV/cm, or 3x10
6
V/m.

Quiz time (maybe for points, maybe just for practice!)

Todays agenda:

The electric field.
You must be able to calculate the force on a charged particle in an electric field.

Electric field due to a point charge.
You must be able to calculate electric field of a point charge.

Motion of a charged particle in a uniform electric
field.
You must be able to solve for the trajectory of a charged particle in a uniform electric field.

The electric field due to a collection of point charges.
You must be able to calculate electric field of a collection of point charges.

The electric field due to a continuous line of charge.
You must be able to calculate electric field of a continuous line of charge.

Motion of a Charged Particle
in a Uniform Electric Field
A charged particle in an electric field experiences a force, and if
it is free to move, an acceleration.
- - - - - - - - - - - - -
+ + + + + + + + + + + + +
-
F
If the only force is due to the
electric field, then
F ma qE. = =

## If E is constant, then a is constant, and you can use the

equations of kinematics* (remember way back to the beginning
of Physics 23?).
*If you get called to the board, you can use the Physics 23 starting equations. They are posted.
E
Example: an electron moving with velocity v
0
in the positive x
direction enters a region of uniform electric field that makes a
right angle with the electrons initial velocity. Express the
position and velocity of the electron as a function of time.
- - - - - - - - - - - - -
+ + + + + + + + + + + + +
E
x
y
-
v
0
To be worked at the blackboard.
What would be different for a proton?
Make sure you understand what a uniform electric field is.

Todays agenda:

The electric field.
You must be able to calculate the force on a charged particle in an electric field.

Electric field due to a point charge.
You must be able to calculate electric field of a point charge.

Motion of a charged particle in a uniform electric field.
You must be able to solve for the trajectory of a charged particle in a uniform electric field.

The electric field due to a collection of point charges.
You must be able to calculate electric field of a collection of point charges.

The electric field due to a continuous line of charge.
You must be able to calculate electric field of a continuous line of charge.

Example: calculate the electric field at position P due to the two
protons shown.
+ +
D D
P
Q
1
=+e Q
2
=+e
x
E
1
E
2
( )
1 2
P 1 2
2 2
k Q k Q

E E E i i
D
2D
= + =
P
2 2 2
ke ke 5ke

E i i i
D 4D 4D
= =

Todays agenda:

The electric field.
You must be able to calculate the force on a charged particle in an electric field.

Electric field due to a point charge.
You must be able to calculate electric field of a point charge.

Motion of a charged particle in a uniform electric field.
You must be able to solve for the trajectory of a charged particle in a uniform electric field.

The electric field due to a collection of point charges.
You must be able to calculate electric field of a collection of point charges.

The electric field due to a continuous line of charge.
You must be able to calculate electric field of a continuous line of charge.

Electric Field Due To A Line of Charge
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Matter is made of discrete atoms, but appears
"continuous" to us. In Physics 23 you treated matter
as being a continuous entity.

Similarly, a charge distribution is made of individual
charged particles, but we can often treat it as if the
charge were continuous.
Think of a line of charge as a collection of very very tiny point
charges all lined up. The official term for very very tiny is
infinitesimal.
So we get the electric field for the line of charge by adding the
electric fields for all the infinitesimal point charges.
What happens in calculus when you add infinitesimals? Really
really tiny infinitesimals?
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Yes, I know an infinitesimal is already really really tiny, so the reallys and tinys in really really tiny infinitesimals are redundant.
The electric field due to a small "chunk" Aq of charge is
2
0
1 q
E = r
4 r
A
A
The electric field due to collection of "chunks" of charge is
i
i
i
2
i i
0 i
1 q
E = E = r
4 r
A
A

unit vector from Aq
to wherever you
want to calculate AE
unit vector from Aq
i

to wherever you
want to calculate E
As Aqdq0, the sum becomes an integral.
If charge is distributed along a straight line segment parallel to
the x-axis, the amount of charge dq on a segment of length dx
is dx.
is the linear density of charge (amount of charge per unit
length). may be a function of position.
Think length. times the length of line segment is the
total charge on the line segment.
x
dx
dx
Consider charge distributed along a line (e.g., electrons on a
thread).
Ill bet you thought means wavelength.
Well, it does. Sometimes. But not today.
The electric field at point P due to the charge dq is
x
dq
P
2 2
0 0
1 dq 1 dx
dE = r' = r'
4 r' 4 r'

r
r'
dE
Im assuming positively charged objects
in these distribution of charges slides.
Absolute value signs not needed around dq
because Im assuming positively charged objects.
The electric field at P due to the entire line of charge is
2
0
1 (x) dx
E = r' .
4 r'
}
The integration is carried out over the entire length of the line, which need
not be straight. Also, could be a function of position, and can be taken
outside the integral only if the charge distribution is uniform.
x
dq
P
r
r'
E
Example: A rod of length L has a uniform charge per unit length
and a total positive charge Q. Calculate the electric field at a
point P along the axis of the rod a distance d from one end.
P x
y
d L
Lets put the origin at P. The linear charge density and Q are
related by
Q
= and Q = L
L

Note that the problem statement says Q is positive, so the
electric field points away from the rod.
P x
y
d L
The electric field points away from the rod. The electric field on
the axis of the rod has no y-component (why?). dE from the
charge on an infinitesimal length dx of rod is
dE
x
dx dQ = dx
2 2
dq dx
dE = k k
x x

=
Note: dE is in the x direction. dE is the magnitude of dE. Ive
used the fact that Q>0 (so dq>0) to eliminate the absolute
value signs in the starting equation.
This is a legal
starting equation. In
fact, this is the best
way to start a problem
like this one.
P x
y
d L
dE
x
dx dQ = dx
d L
d+L d+L d+L
2 2
d d d
d
dx dx 1

E = dE = -k i = -k i = -k i
x x x
+

| |

|
\ .
} } }
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 d d L L kQ

E = -k i = -k i= -k i= - i
d L d d d L d d L d d L
| |
+ +
| |
+
|
|
|
+ + + +
\ .
\ .
This approach, where I do the whole problem all at once using unit vector notation, is not recommended for beginners. I
suggest you do the x and y components separately, like I will do in lecture.
Homework Hints (may not apply every semester)
There are two kinds of problems from todays lecture:
1. Given an electric field, calculate the force on a
charged particle.
2. Given one or more charged particles, calculate
the electric field they produce.

Make sure you understand which kind of problem you are
working on!

2
q
E=k
r
F = qE
Homework Hints (may not apply every semester)
Symmetry is your friend. Use it when appropriate. Dont use it
when not appropriate.
G,pair
2
GmM
F , attractive
r
=
The above equation is on the Physics 23 Starting Equation
Sheet, which is posted in the recitation classrooms. You are free
to use Physics 23 starting equations at any time.
Homework Hints (may not apply every semester)
Your starting equations so far are:
(plus Physics 23 starting equations).
1 2
2
12
q q
F k
12
r
=
0
0
F
E =
q
2
q
E=k
r
2
dq
dE=k .
r
This is a legal variation (use it if you are assigned 21.54a or
21.90!):
You can remove the absolute value signs if you know that dq is
always positive.
Homework Hints (may not apply every semester)
Electric field at center of semicircular line of positive charge.
By symmetry, E
x
=0 (why?).
R

d
ds
dE
2 2 2
dq ds Rd d
dE = k k k k
R R R R

= = =
y
d sin( )
dE = dE sin( ) k
R

=
y y
0
d sin( )
E = dE = k
R
t

} }
Magnitude comes from above integral, direction is y.
y
x
There is dq of charge
on the ds of the line.
That dq of charge gives
rise to dE of field.
Homework Hints (may not apply every semester)
( )
3
2 2 2
dx
x a +
}
The integrals below are on page A-4 (appendix B) of your text.
( )
3
2 2 2
x dx
x a +
}
Your recitation instructor will supply you with needed integrals.
The above integrals may or may not be needed this semester.
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