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adapted from http://www.nearingzero.

net (nz128)

Todays agenda:

Announcements.

Electric flux.
You must be able to calculate the electric flux through a surface.

Gauss Law.
You must be able to use Gauss Law to calculate the electric field of a high-symmetry
charge distribution.

Cultural enlightenment time.
You must be culturally enlightened by this lecture.

Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.
You must be able to use Gauss law to draw conclusions about the behavior of charged
particles on, and electric fields in, conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.

Announcements
- Exam 1 is Tuesday, September 18, 5:00-6:15 pm.
If you are participating in an official Missouri S&T event or in a
class that offers no makeups, a sponsor may administer the test
and provide test security. See Taking a Test at a Different
Time/Place on this web page.
I will need a brief memo from you (handwritten is OK), signed by
you and your faculty sponsor or course instructor, no later than
end of the 1:00 lecture on the Wednesday before the exam (Sept.
12 for Exam 1). Instead of a signed memo, E-mails (they could be
separate) from both you and your sponsor/instructor are also
sufficient. I just need to know that your sponsor is fully informed.
Announcements (continued)
- Exam 1 is Tuesday, September 18, 5:00-6:15 pm.
In case of a officially-scheduled course conflict, there is an option
to take the test from 5:30-6:45 on Test Day.
If one of the above two circumstances applies to you, send me an
e-mail by no later than end of the 1:00 lecture on the Wednesday
before the exam (Sept. 12 for Exam 1), telling me when you will
need to take the exam (either 4:30 or 5:30).
In case you have a later conflict, this semester I will also provide
option to take the test from 4:30-5:45 on Test Day. You will not
be allowed to leave the exam room before 5:30 pm.
Announcements (continued)
E-mail me by 5:00 pm Friday, August 31 if you have a time
conflict for Exam 1 which is not covered on the previous two
slides slide.

Provide these details: (1) dates of conflict, (2) nature of
conflict, (3) name of responsible person (other course
instructor, job supervisor, etc.).

There are no guarantees, but perhaps the other person involved and I will work out something
agreeable.

Announcements (continued)
According to Testing Center guidelines: students are
responsible for making appointments a minimum of seven
business days prior to date that the test will be
administered. (Both you and I must make an appointment.)
- The Missouri S&T Testing Center provides accommodations for
students with special needs or disabilities.
To ensure that we meet these guidelines, I need to be
informed no later than Friday, September 7, that you will
require Testing Center accommodations for Exam 1. I will then
request the necessary accommodations.
Also provide me with your accommodation letter and Missouri
S&T e-mail address by the end of the 1:00 Wednesday lecture
prior to the test (September 12 for Exam 1).
Announcements (continued)
If you are going to miss recitation due to illness or other special
circumstances, let your recitation instructor know. That will not
necessarily excuse you from boardwork and will not excuse you from
turning in homework.

Find a way to get your homework to your recitation instructor
before the start of recitation. Have a friend take it. Scan and
e-mail it. Photograph and e-mail it (keep file sizes down!). Take a
picture with your cell phone camera and e-mail it. (Clear this
with your recitation instructor so he/she knows you
didnt take a photo of someone elses work.)

This does not constitute blanket permission to turn in
homework electronically or to skip recitation. You are
expected to attend recitation, and bring homework on
paper.
Announcements (continued)
Know your recitation section letter!
The walk-in tutors in 208 Norwood are available from 7-9 pm
Monday through Thursday.

Todays agenda:

Announcements.

Electric flux.
You must be able to calculate the electric flux through a surface.

Gauss Law.
You must be able to use Gauss Law to calculate the electric field of a high-symmetry
charge distribution.

Cultural enlightenment time.
You must be culturally enlightened by this lecture.

Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.
You must be able to use Gauss law to draw conclusions about the behavior of charged
particles on, and electric fields in, conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.

Gauss Law
Electric Flux
We have used electric field lines to visualize electric fields and
indicate their strength.
We are now going to count* the
number of electric field lines passing
through a surface, and use this
count to determine the electric field.
E
*There are 3 kinds of people in this world: those who can count, and those who cant.
The electric flux passing through a surface is the number of
electric field lines that pass through it.
Because electric field lines are drawn
arbitrarily, we quantify electric flux
like this: u
E
=EA, except that
If the surface is tilted, fewer lines cut
the surface.
E
A
Later well learn about magnetic flux, which is
why I will use the subscript E on electric flux.
E
u
The green lines miss!
E
u
u
A
The amount of surface perpendicular
to the electric field is A cos u.
A
Effective
= A cos u so u
E
= EA
Effective
= EA cos u.
We define A to be a vector having a
magnitude equal to the area of the
surface, in a direction normal to the
surface.
Therefore, the amount of surface area effectively cut through
by the electric field is A cos u.
Remember the dot product from Physics 23?
E
E A u =
If the electric field is not uniform, or the surface is not flat
divide the surface into
infinitesimal surface
elements and add the
flux through each
dA
E
i
E i i
A 0
i
lim E A
A
u = A

E
E dA u =
}
AA
Remember, the direction of dA
is normal to the surface.
If the surface is closed (completely encloses a volume)
E
we count* lines going
out as positive and lines
going in as negative
E
E dA u =
}
dA
a surface integral, therefore a
double integral }}
*There are 10 kinds of people in this world: those who can count in binary, and those who cant.
For a closed surface, dA is normal
to the surface and always points
away from the inside.
What the *!@* is this thing?
}
Nothing to panic about!
The circle just reminds you
to integrate over a closed
surface.
Question: you gave me five different equations for electric flux.
Which one do I need to use?
E
E dA u =
}
E
E dA u =
}
E
E A u =
E
EAcos u = u
E
EA u =
Answer: use the simplest (easiest!) one that works.
Flat surface, E ,, A, E constant over surface. Easy!
Flat surface, E not ,, A, E constant over surface.
Flat surface, E not ,, A, E constant over surface.
Surface not flat, E not uniform. Avoid, if possible.
Closed surface. Most general. Most complex.
If the surface is closed, you may be able to break it up into
simple segments and still use u
E
=EA for each segment.
Example: Calculate the electric flux through a cylinder with its
axis parallel to the electric field direction.
E
To be worked at the blackboard
Possible Homework Hint! (not applicable every semester)
E
E A u =
If you know E and A for each surface enclosing a volume, the
simplest way to calculate the total u
E
might be to calculate
for each surface, and add up all the u
E
s.

Todays agenda:

Announcements.

Electric flux.
You must be able to calculate the electric flux through a surface.

Gauss Law.
You must be able to use Gauss Law to calculate the electric field of a high-symmetry
charge distribution.

Cultural enlightenment time.
You must be culturally enlightened by this lecture.

Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.
You must be able to use Gauss law to draw conclusions about the behavior of charged
particles on, and electric fields in, conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.

If there were a + charge inside the cylinder, there would be
more lines going out than in.
If there were a - charge inside the cylinder, there would be
more lines going in than out

which leads us to
E + -
Gauss Law
Mathematically*, we express the idea of the last two slides as
enclosed
E
o
q
E dA u = =
c
}
Gauss Law
Always true, not always useful.
We will find that Gauss law gives a simple way to calculate
electric fields for charge distributions that exhibit a high degree
of symmetry
and we will save more complex charge distributions for
advanced classes.
*Mathematics is the Queen of the Sciences.Karl Gauss
To see how this works, lets do an example.
Example: use Gauss Law to calculate the electric field from an
isolated point charge q.
To apply Gauss Law, we construct a Gaussian Surface
enclosing the charge.
The Gaussian surface must have the same symmetry as the
charge distribution.
For this example, choose for our Gaussian surface a sphere of
radius r, with the point charge at the center.
Ill work the rest of the example on the blackboard.
Homework Hint!
For tomorrows homework, you may not apply the equation for
the electric field of a point charge



to a distribution of charges. Instead, use Gauss Law. Later I
will give you permission to use the point charge equation for
certain specific charge distributions.
2
k q
E
r
=
Strategy for Solving Gauss Law Problems
- Evaluate the surface integral (electric flux).
- Determine the charge inside the Gaussian surface.
- Solve for E.
If I were Dr. Bieniek, this would be a litany.
- Select a Gaussian surface with symmetry that matches the
charge distribution.

Use symmetry to determine the direction of on the Gaussian surface.

You want to be constant in magnitude and everywhere perpendicular
to the surface, so that

or else everywhere parallel to the surface so that .
E
E dA E dA =
E dA 0 =
E

Quiz time (maybe for points, maybe just for practice!)

Example: calculate the electric field outside a long cylinder of
finite radius R with a uniform volume charge density spread
throughout the volume of the cylinder.
The cylinder being long and the radius finite are code
words that tell you to neglect end effects from the cylinder
(i.e., assume it is infinitely long).
Know how to interpret code words when exam time comes!
Lets go through this a step at a time (work to be shown at board; skip to here).
- Select a Gaussian surface with symmetry that matches the
charge distribution.
Pick a cylinder of length L and radius r, concentric with the
cylinder of the problem.
Already done!
- Use symmetry to determine the direction of E on the Gaussian
surface.
Electric field points radially away from cylinder, and magnitude
does not depend on direction.
- Evaluate the surface integral (electric flux).
Surface integral is just E times the curved area.
- Draw the Gaussian surface so that at all points on the
Gaussian surface either or . E dA E dA = E dA 0 =
- Determine the charge inside the Gaussian surface.
The charge inside is just the volume of charged cylinder inside
the Gaussian surface, times the charge per volume.
- Solve for E.
2
0
R
E
2 r

=
c
More examples at end of lecture, if time permits.
Example: use Gauss Law to calculate the electric field due to a
long line of charge, with linear charge density .
Example: use Gauss Law to calculate the electric field due to
an infinite sheet of charge, with surface charge density o.
These are easy using Gauss Law (remember what a pain they
were in the previous chapter). Study these examples and others
in your text!
sheet
0
E .
2
o
=
c
line
0
E .
2 r

=
tc
Gauss Law works well for three kinds of symmetry:
Charge Symmetry Gaussian Surface
spherical concentric sphere
cylindrical coaxial cylinder
planar pillbox

Todays agenda:

Announcements.

Electric flux.
You must be able to calculate the electric flux through a surface.

Gauss Law.
You must be able to use Gauss Law to calculate the electric field of a high-symmetry
charge distribution.

Cultural enlightenment time.
You must be culturally enlightened by this lecture.

Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.
You must be able to use Gauss law to draw conclusions about the behavior of charged
particles on, and electric fields in, conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.

Cultural Enlightenment* Time
The top 5 reasons why we make you learn Gauss Law:
5. You can solve difficult (high-symmetry) problems with it.
4. Its good for you. Its fun! What more can you ask!
3. Its easy. Smart physicists go for the easy solutions.
2. If I had to learn it, you do too.
And the number one reason
will take a couple of slides to present
*This will not be tested on the exam.
You have learned the integral form of Gauss Law:
This will not be tested on the exam.
enclosed
o
q
E dA =
c
}
This equation can also be written in differential form:
0
E

V =
c
a 3-dimensional derivative operator
Now you can see we are on the trail of something Really Big
This will not be tested on the exam.
The Missouri S&T Society of Physics Students T-Shirt!

Todays agenda:

Announcements.

Electric flux.
You must be able to calculate the electric flux through a surface.

Gauss Law.
You must be able to use Gauss Law to calculate the electric field of a high-symmetry
charge distribution.

Cultural enlightenment time.
You must be culturally enlightened by this lecture.

Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.
You must be able to use Gauss law to draw conclusions about the behavior of charged
particles on, and electric fields in, conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.

Homework hints buried in the next 3 pages!
Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
Electrostatic equilibrium means there is no net motion of tne
charges inside the conductor.
The electric field inside the conductor must be zero.
Any excess charge must reside on the outside surface of the
conductor.
If this were not the case, charges would move.
Apply Gauss law to a Gaussian surface just inside the
conductor surface. The electric field is zero, so the net charge
inside the Gaussian surface is zero.
The electric field just outside a charged conductor must be
perpendicular to the conductors surface.
Otherwise, the component of the
electric field parallel to the surface
would cause charges to accelerate.
The magnitude of the electric field just outside a charged
conductor is equal to ,o,/c
0
, where ,o, is the magnitude of the
local surface charge density.
A simple application Gauss Law, which I will show if time
permits.
If there is an empty nonconducting cavity inside the conductor,
Gauss Law tells us there is no net charge on the interior
surface of the conductor.
If there is a nonconducting cavity inside the conductor, with a
net charge inside the cavity, Gauss Law tells us there is an
equal and opposite induced charge on the interior surface of
the conductor.
Construct a Gaussian surface that includes the inner surface of
the conductor. The electric field at the Gaussian surface is zero,
so no electric flux passes through the Gaussian surface. Gauss
Law says the charge inside must be zero. The conductor does
not have to be symmetric, as shown.
+Q
Construct a Gaussian surface that includes the inner surface of
the conductor. The electric field at the Gaussian surface is zero,
so no electric flux passes through the Gaussian surface. Gauss
Law says the charge inside must be zero.
Construct a Gaussian surface that includes the inner surface of
the conductor. The electric field at the Gaussian surface is zero,
so no electric flux passes through the Gaussian surface. Gauss
Law says the charge inside must be zero. There must be a Q
on the inner surface. The conductor does not have to be
symmetric, as shown.
-Q
Example: a conducting spherical shell of inner radius a and
outer radius b with a net charge -Q is centered on point charge
+2Q. Use Gausss law to show that there is a net charge of
-2Q on the inner surface of the shell, and a net charge of +Q
on the outer surface of the shell.
a
b
-Q
+2Q
enclosed
o
q
E dA =
c
}
Thanks to Dr. Waddill for the use of the picture.
Example (if time permits): an insulating sphere of radius a has
a uniform charge density and a total positive charge Q.
Calculate the electric field at a point inside the sphere
a
Q
r
Thanks again to Dr. Waddill for the use of the picture.
enclosed
o
q
E dA =
c
}
Because there may be no time to work the previous two
examples in class, I will put Dr. Waddills lecture on Gauss Law
from a couple of years ago on the Physics 24 web site. Please
click on the word lecture in the previous sentence to
view/download the lecture.

Here is the address for you to copy and paste into a web
browser, in case the link in the above paragraph doesnt work:

http://campus.mst.edu/physics/courses/24/Handouts/Lec_03.ppt