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net (nz128)

Todays agenda:

Announcements.

Electric flux.

You must be able to calculate the electric flux through a surface.

Gauss Law.

You must be able to use Gauss Law to calculate the electric field of a high-symmetry

charge distribution.

Cultural enlightenment time.

You must be culturally enlightened by this lecture.

Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.

You must be able to use Gauss law to draw conclusions about the behavior of charged

particles on, and electric fields in, conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.

Announcements

- Exam 1 is Tuesday, September 18, 5:00-6:15 pm.

If you are participating in an official Missouri S&T event or in a

class that offers no makeups, a sponsor may administer the test

and provide test security. See Taking a Test at a Different

Time/Place on this web page.

I will need a brief memo from you (handwritten is OK), signed by

you and your faculty sponsor or course instructor, no later than

end of the 1:00 lecture on the Wednesday before the exam (Sept.

12 for Exam 1). Instead of a signed memo, E-mails (they could be

separate) from both you and your sponsor/instructor are also

sufficient. I just need to know that your sponsor is fully informed.

Announcements (continued)

- Exam 1 is Tuesday, September 18, 5:00-6:15 pm.

In case of a officially-scheduled course conflict, there is an option

to take the test from 5:30-6:45 on Test Day.

If one of the above two circumstances applies to you, send me an

e-mail by no later than end of the 1:00 lecture on the Wednesday

before the exam (Sept. 12 for Exam 1), telling me when you will

need to take the exam (either 4:30 or 5:30).

In case you have a later conflict, this semester I will also provide

option to take the test from 4:30-5:45 on Test Day. You will not

be allowed to leave the exam room before 5:30 pm.

Announcements (continued)

E-mail me by 5:00 pm Friday, August 31 if you have a time

conflict for Exam 1 which is not covered on the previous two

slides slide.

Provide these details: (1) dates of conflict, (2) nature of

conflict, (3) name of responsible person (other course

instructor, job supervisor, etc.).

There are no guarantees, but perhaps the other person involved and I will work out something

agreeable.

Announcements (continued)

According to Testing Center guidelines: students are

responsible for making appointments a minimum of seven

business days prior to date that the test will be

administered. (Both you and I must make an appointment.)

- The Missouri S&T Testing Center provides accommodations for

students with special needs or disabilities.

To ensure that we meet these guidelines, I need to be

informed no later than Friday, September 7, that you will

require Testing Center accommodations for Exam 1. I will then

request the necessary accommodations.

Also provide me with your accommodation letter and Missouri

S&T e-mail address by the end of the 1:00 Wednesday lecture

prior to the test (September 12 for Exam 1).

Announcements (continued)

If you are going to miss recitation due to illness or other special

circumstances, let your recitation instructor know. That will not

necessarily excuse you from boardwork and will not excuse you from

turning in homework.

Find a way to get your homework to your recitation instructor

before the start of recitation. Have a friend take it. Scan and

e-mail it. Photograph and e-mail it (keep file sizes down!). Take a

picture with your cell phone camera and e-mail it. (Clear this

with your recitation instructor so he/she knows you

didnt take a photo of someone elses work.)

This does not constitute blanket permission to turn in

homework electronically or to skip recitation. You are

expected to attend recitation, and bring homework on

paper.

Announcements (continued)

Know your recitation section letter!

The walk-in tutors in 208 Norwood are available from 7-9 pm

Monday through Thursday.

Todays agenda:

Announcements.

Electric flux.

You must be able to calculate the electric flux through a surface.

Gauss Law.

You must be able to use Gauss Law to calculate the electric field of a high-symmetry

charge distribution.

Cultural enlightenment time.

You must be culturally enlightened by this lecture.

Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.

You must be able to use Gauss law to draw conclusions about the behavior of charged

particles on, and electric fields in, conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.

Gauss Law

Electric Flux

We have used electric field lines to visualize electric fields and

indicate their strength.

We are now going to count* the

number of electric field lines passing

through a surface, and use this

count to determine the electric field.

E

*There are 3 kinds of people in this world: those who can count, and those who cant.

The electric flux passing through a surface is the number of

electric field lines that pass through it.

Because electric field lines are drawn

arbitrarily, we quantify electric flux

like this: u

E

=EA, except that

If the surface is tilted, fewer lines cut

the surface.

E

A

Later well learn about magnetic flux, which is

why I will use the subscript E on electric flux.

E

u

The green lines miss!

E

u

u

A

The amount of surface perpendicular

to the electric field is A cos u.

A

Effective

= A cos u so u

E

= EA

Effective

= EA cos u.

We define A to be a vector having a

magnitude equal to the area of the

surface, in a direction normal to the

surface.

Therefore, the amount of surface area effectively cut through

by the electric field is A cos u.

Remember the dot product from Physics 23?

E

E A u =

If the electric field is not uniform, or the surface is not flat

divide the surface into

infinitesimal surface

elements and add the

flux through each

dA

E

i

E i i

A 0

i

lim E A

A

u = A

E

E dA u =

}

AA

Remember, the direction of dA

is normal to the surface.

If the surface is closed (completely encloses a volume)

E

we count* lines going

out as positive and lines

going in as negative

E

E dA u =

}

dA

a surface integral, therefore a

double integral }}

*There are 10 kinds of people in this world: those who can count in binary, and those who cant.

For a closed surface, dA is normal

to the surface and always points

away from the inside.

What the *!@* is this thing?

}

Nothing to panic about!

The circle just reminds you

to integrate over a closed

surface.

Question: you gave me five different equations for electric flux.

Which one do I need to use?

E

E dA u =

}

E

E dA u =

}

E

E A u =

E

EAcos u = u

E

EA u =

Answer: use the simplest (easiest!) one that works.

Flat surface, E ,, A, E constant over surface. Easy!

Flat surface, E not ,, A, E constant over surface.

Flat surface, E not ,, A, E constant over surface.

Surface not flat, E not uniform. Avoid, if possible.

Closed surface. Most general. Most complex.

If the surface is closed, you may be able to break it up into

simple segments and still use u

E

=EA for each segment.

Example: Calculate the electric flux through a cylinder with its

axis parallel to the electric field direction.

E

To be worked at the blackboard

Possible Homework Hint! (not applicable every semester)

E

E A u =

If you know E and A for each surface enclosing a volume, the

simplest way to calculate the total u

E

might be to calculate

for each surface, and add up all the u

E

s.

Todays agenda:

Announcements.

Electric flux.

You must be able to calculate the electric flux through a surface.

Gauss Law.

You must be able to use Gauss Law to calculate the electric field of a high-symmetry

charge distribution.

Cultural enlightenment time.

You must be culturally enlightened by this lecture.

Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.

You must be able to use Gauss law to draw conclusions about the behavior of charged

particles on, and electric fields in, conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.

If there were a + charge inside the cylinder, there would be

more lines going out than in.

If there were a - charge inside the cylinder, there would be

more lines going in than out

which leads us to

E + -

Gauss Law

Mathematically*, we express the idea of the last two slides as

enclosed

E

o

q

E dA u = =

c

}

Gauss Law

Always true, not always useful.

We will find that Gauss law gives a simple way to calculate

electric fields for charge distributions that exhibit a high degree

of symmetry

and we will save more complex charge distributions for

advanced classes.

*Mathematics is the Queen of the Sciences.Karl Gauss

To see how this works, lets do an example.

Example: use Gauss Law to calculate the electric field from an

isolated point charge q.

To apply Gauss Law, we construct a Gaussian Surface

enclosing the charge.

The Gaussian surface must have the same symmetry as the

charge distribution.

For this example, choose for our Gaussian surface a sphere of

radius r, with the point charge at the center.

Ill work the rest of the example on the blackboard.

Homework Hint!

For tomorrows homework, you may not apply the equation for

the electric field of a point charge

to a distribution of charges. Instead, use Gauss Law. Later I

will give you permission to use the point charge equation for

certain specific charge distributions.

2

k q

E

r

=

Strategy for Solving Gauss Law Problems

- Evaluate the surface integral (electric flux).

- Determine the charge inside the Gaussian surface.

- Solve for E.

If I were Dr. Bieniek, this would be a litany.

- Select a Gaussian surface with symmetry that matches the

charge distribution.

Use symmetry to determine the direction of on the Gaussian surface.

You want to be constant in magnitude and everywhere perpendicular

to the surface, so that

or else everywhere parallel to the surface so that .

E

E dA E dA =

E dA 0 =

E

Quiz time (maybe for points, maybe just for practice!)

Example: calculate the electric field outside a long cylinder of

finite radius R with a uniform volume charge density spread

throughout the volume of the cylinder.

The cylinder being long and the radius finite are code

words that tell you to neglect end effects from the cylinder

(i.e., assume it is infinitely long).

Know how to interpret code words when exam time comes!

Lets go through this a step at a time (work to be shown at board; skip to here).

- Select a Gaussian surface with symmetry that matches the

charge distribution.

Pick a cylinder of length L and radius r, concentric with the

cylinder of the problem.

Already done!

- Use symmetry to determine the direction of E on the Gaussian

surface.

Electric field points radially away from cylinder, and magnitude

does not depend on direction.

- Evaluate the surface integral (electric flux).

Surface integral is just E times the curved area.

- Draw the Gaussian surface so that at all points on the

Gaussian surface either or . E dA E dA = E dA 0 =

- Determine the charge inside the Gaussian surface.

The charge inside is just the volume of charged cylinder inside

the Gaussian surface, times the charge per volume.

- Solve for E.

2

0

R

E

2 r

=

c

More examples at end of lecture, if time permits.

Example: use Gauss Law to calculate the electric field due to a

long line of charge, with linear charge density .

Example: use Gauss Law to calculate the electric field due to

an infinite sheet of charge, with surface charge density o.

These are easy using Gauss Law (remember what a pain they

were in the previous chapter). Study these examples and others

in your text!

sheet

0

E .

2

o

=

c

line

0

E .

2 r

=

tc

Gauss Law works well for three kinds of symmetry:

Charge Symmetry Gaussian Surface

spherical concentric sphere

cylindrical coaxial cylinder

planar pillbox

Todays agenda:

Announcements.

Electric flux.

You must be able to calculate the electric flux through a surface.

Gauss Law.

You must be able to use Gauss Law to calculate the electric field of a high-symmetry

charge distribution.

Cultural enlightenment time.

You must be culturally enlightened by this lecture.

Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.

You must be able to use Gauss law to draw conclusions about the behavior of charged

particles on, and electric fields in, conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.

Cultural Enlightenment* Time

The top 5 reasons why we make you learn Gauss Law:

5. You can solve difficult (high-symmetry) problems with it.

4. Its good for you. Its fun! What more can you ask!

3. Its easy. Smart physicists go for the easy solutions.

2. If I had to learn it, you do too.

And the number one reason

will take a couple of slides to present

*This will not be tested on the exam.

You have learned the integral form of Gauss Law:

This will not be tested on the exam.

enclosed

o

q

E dA =

c

}

This equation can also be written in differential form:

0

E

V =

c

a 3-dimensional derivative operator

Now you can see we are on the trail of something Really Big

This will not be tested on the exam.

The Missouri S&T Society of Physics Students T-Shirt!

Todays agenda:

Announcements.

Electric flux.

You must be able to calculate the electric flux through a surface.

Gauss Law.

You must be able to use Gauss Law to calculate the electric field of a high-symmetry

charge distribution.

Cultural enlightenment time.

You must be culturally enlightened by this lecture.

Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.

You must be able to use Gauss law to draw conclusions about the behavior of charged

particles on, and electric fields in, conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.

Homework hints buried in the next 3 pages!

Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium

Electrostatic equilibrium means there is no net motion of tne

charges inside the conductor.

The electric field inside the conductor must be zero.

Any excess charge must reside on the outside surface of the

conductor.

If this were not the case, charges would move.

Apply Gauss law to a Gaussian surface just inside the

conductor surface. The electric field is zero, so the net charge

inside the Gaussian surface is zero.

The electric field just outside a charged conductor must be

perpendicular to the conductors surface.

Otherwise, the component of the

electric field parallel to the surface

would cause charges to accelerate.

The magnitude of the electric field just outside a charged

conductor is equal to ,o,/c

0

, where ,o, is the magnitude of the

local surface charge density.

A simple application Gauss Law, which I will show if time

permits.

If there is an empty nonconducting cavity inside the conductor,

Gauss Law tells us there is no net charge on the interior

surface of the conductor.

If there is a nonconducting cavity inside the conductor, with a

net charge inside the cavity, Gauss Law tells us there is an

equal and opposite induced charge on the interior surface of

the conductor.

Construct a Gaussian surface that includes the inner surface of

the conductor. The electric field at the Gaussian surface is zero,

so no electric flux passes through the Gaussian surface. Gauss

Law says the charge inside must be zero. The conductor does

not have to be symmetric, as shown.

+Q

Construct a Gaussian surface that includes the inner surface of

the conductor. The electric field at the Gaussian surface is zero,

so no electric flux passes through the Gaussian surface. Gauss

Law says the charge inside must be zero.

Construct a Gaussian surface that includes the inner surface of

the conductor. The electric field at the Gaussian surface is zero,

so no electric flux passes through the Gaussian surface. Gauss

Law says the charge inside must be zero. There must be a Q

on the inner surface. The conductor does not have to be

symmetric, as shown.

-Q

Example: a conducting spherical shell of inner radius a and

outer radius b with a net charge -Q is centered on point charge

+2Q. Use Gausss law to show that there is a net charge of

-2Q on the inner surface of the shell, and a net charge of +Q

on the outer surface of the shell.

a

b

-Q

+2Q

enclosed

o

q

E dA =

c

}

Thanks to Dr. Waddill for the use of the picture.

Example (if time permits): an insulating sphere of radius a has

a uniform charge density and a total positive charge Q.

Calculate the electric field at a point inside the sphere

a

Q

r

Thanks again to Dr. Waddill for the use of the picture.

enclosed

o

q

E dA =

c

}

Because there may be no time to work the previous two

examples in class, I will put Dr. Waddills lecture on Gauss Law

from a couple of years ago on the Physics 24 web site. Please

click on the word lecture in the previous sentence to

view/download the lecture.

Here is the address for you to copy and paste into a web

browser, in case the link in the above paragraph doesnt work:

http://campus.mst.edu/physics/courses/24/Handouts/Lec_03.ppt

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