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Job analysis is the process of gathering information about a job. It is, to be more specific, a systematic investigation of the tasks, duties and responsibilities necessary to do a job.

Job Analysis


Nature of job analysis

Job Tasks

Job Analysis

Job Duties

Job Responsibilities

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Partial job analysis questionnaire

The information about a job is usually collected through a structured questionnaire:
JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION FORMAT Your Job Title_______________ Class Title_______________ Your Name_________________ Superiors Title______________ Superiors Name____________ Code__________Date_____________ Department_____________________ Facility___________________________ Prepared by_______________________ Hours Worked______AM______to AM____ PM
1. What is the general purpose of your job? 2. What was your last job? If it was in another organisation, please name it. 3. To what job would you normally expect to be promoted?


Job Analysis


Partial job analysis questionnaire

4. If you regularly supervise others, list them by name and job title. 5. If you supervise others, please check those activities that are part of your supervisory duties: Hiring Orienting Training Scheduling Developing Coaching Counselling Budgeting Directing Promoting Compensating Disciplining Terminating

Measuring Performances Other____________

6. How would you describe the successful completion and results of your work? 7. Job Duties Please briefly describe WHAT you do and, if possible, How you do it. Indicate those duties you consider to be most important and/or most difficult:

Job Analysis


Partial job analysis questionnaire

(a) Daily Duties (b) Periodic Duties (Please indicate whether weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc.)

(c) Duties Performed at Irregular Intervals

8. Education Please check the blank that indicates the educational requirements for the job, not your own educational background.

No formal education required

Less than high school diploma College certificate or equivalent

College degree
Education beyond graduate

High school diploma or equivalent degree and/or professional license.

List advanced degrees or specified professional license or certificate required. Please indicate the education you had when you were placed on this job.

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Benefits of Job analysis

Job analysis information is useful for a variety of organisation purposes ranging from human resource planning to career counselling

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Important benefits of Job Analysis

Multifaceted Nature of Job Analysis
Recruitment Human Resource Planning Selection

Job Evaluation


Job Design and Redesign


Performance Appraisal Employee Safety


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Who should conduct job analysis?

Job incumbents themselves Supervisors External analysts

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The process of Job analysis

The major steps involved in job analysis are: Organisational analysis Selection of representative positions to be analysed Collection of job analysis data Preparation of job description Preparation of job specification

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The Competency Approach to Job Analysis

This approach encourages employees to develop role based competencies (knowledge, skills and abilities needed to play diverse roles ) that may be used in diverse work situations, instead of being boxed into a job.

Job Analysis


Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Data

Seven general techniques are generally used to collect job analysis data; Job performance: the analyst actually performs the job in question and collects the needed information Personal observation: the analyst observes others doing the job and writes a summary

Critical incidents: job incumbents describe several incidents relating to work, based on past experience; the analyst collects, analyses and classifies data.
Interview: job incumbents and supervisors are interviewed to get the most essential information about a job

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Guidelines for conducting job analysis interviews

Put the worker at ease; establish rapport. Make the purpose of the interview clear. Encourage the worker to talk by using empathy creativity. Help the worker to think and talk according to the logical sequence of the duties performed. Ask the worker only one question at a time. Phrase questions carefully so that the answers will be more than just yes or no. Avoid asking leading questions. Secure specified and complete information pertaining to the work performed and the workers traits. Conduct the interview in plain, easy language. Consider the relationship of the present job to other jobs in the department. Control the time and subject matter of the interview. Be patient and considerate to the worker. Summarise the information obtained before closing the interview. Close the interview promptly.

Job Analysis


Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Data

Panel of experts: experienced people such as job incumbents and supervisors with good knowledge of the job asked to provide the information.
Diary method: job incumbents asked to maintain diaries or logs of their daily job activities and record the time spent and nature of work carried out. Questionnaire method: job incumbents approached through a properly designed questionnaire and asked to provide details.
The Position Analysis Questionnaire: it is a standardised form used to collect specific information about job tasks and worker traits.

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Employee activities in PAQ

1. Information Input: Where and how does the employee get the information he/she uses in performing his/her job.

Examples: Use of written materials. Near-visual differentiation.

2. Mental Processes: What reasoning, decision making, planning and informationprocessing activities are involved in performing the job?

Examples: Levels of reasoning in problem solving. Coding/decoding

3. Physical activities: What physical activities does the employee perform and what tools or devices does he/she use? Examples: Use of Keyboard devices. Assembling/disassembling.

Job Analysis


Employee activities in PAQ

4. Relationships with other people: What relationships with other people are required in performing the job?

Instructing. Contacts with public, customers. 5. Job context: In what physical and social context is the work performed? Examples: High temperature. Interpersonal conflict situations. 6. Other Job characteristics: What activities, conditions, or characteristics other than those described above are relevant to the job?

Examples: Specified work pace. Amount of job structure.

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Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Data

Management Position Description Questionnaire: standardised form designed to analyse managerial jobs it is a

Management Position Description Factors

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Product, marketing and financial strategy planning. Coordination of other organisational units and personnel. Internal business control. Products and services responsibility. Public and customer relations. Advanced consulting. Autonomy of actions. Approval of financial commitments. Staff service. Supervision. Complexity and stress. Advanced financial responsibility. Broad personnel responsibility.

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Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Data

Functional job analysis: it is a systematic process of finding what is done on a job by examining and analysing the fundamental components of data, people and things.

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Behavioural Factors Impacting Job Analysis

The following behavioural factors must be taken care of while carrying out a job analysis:
Exaggerate the facts Employee anxieties Resistance to change

Overemphasis on current efforts

Management straight jacket

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Job Description And Job Specification

The end products of job analysis are: Job description: this is a written statement of what the job holder does, how it is done, under what conditions it is done and why it is done.

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Specimen of Job Description

Title Code Department Summary Duties Compensation manager HR/2310 Human Resource Department Responsible for the design and administration of employee compensation programmes. Conduct job analysis. Prepare job descriptions for current and projected positions.

Evaluate job descriptions and act as Chairman of Job Evaluation Committee.

Insure that companys compensation rates are in tune with the companys philosophy.

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Specimen of Job Description

Relate salary to the performance of each employee. Conduct periodic salary surveys.

Develop and administer performance appraisal programme.

Develop and oversee bonus and other employee benefit plans. Develop an integrated HR information system.

Working conditions
Report to

Normal. Eight hours per day. Five days a week.

Director, Human Resource Department.

Job specification: it offers a profile of human characteristics (knowledge, skills and abilities) needed by a person doing a job.

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Specimen of job specification

Education MBA with specialisation in HRM/MA in social work/PG Diploma in HRM/MA in industrial psychology.

A degree or diploma in Labour Laws is desirable.

Experience Skill, Knowledge, Abilities At least 3 years experience in a similar position in a large manufacturing company. Knowledge of compensation practices in competing industries, of job analysis procedures, of compensation survey techniques, of performance appraisal systems. Skill in writing job descriptions, in conducting job analysis interviews, in making group presentations, in performing statistical computations Ability to conduct meetings, to plan and prioritise work. Work Orientation Factors Age The position may require upto 15 per cent travel. Preferably below 30 years.

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Role Analysis
To have a clear picture about what a person actually does on a job, the job analysis information must be supplemented with role analysis. Role analysis involves the following steps:
Identifying the objectives of the department and the functions to be carried out therein Role incumbent asked to state his key performance areas and his understanding of the roles to be played by him Other role partners of the job such as boss, subordinate, peers are asked to state their expectations from the role incumbent The incumbent's role is clarified and expressed in writing after integrating the diverse viewpoints expressed by various role partners.

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Job Analysis In A Jobless World

In recent times, the traditional way of jobs having a clearly-delineated set of duties and responsibilities is being increasingly questioned. For example, knowledge workers do not like standardised, routinised operations to be carried out in a fixed, predetermined time schedule. Talented ones, again, may require jobs with stretch pull and challenge. They may want to carry out their duties in a flexible manner.

Job Analysis


A close look at the jobs inside Indias best work places

Sasken Communication Technologies: Employees enjoy considerable freedom to think and innovate and work in their own style. There is absolutely no monitoring of anybody. There are no attendance registers and there is no limit on sick leaves. Every employee is trusted and management is transparent. There is no perk that CEO Rajiv Mody enjoys that a junior employee does not. Hughes Software Systems: HSS makes sure that all its employees get interesting breaks - these may take the shape of personality development programmes, cricket matches, literature clubs, or adventure activities. One of the employees even commented "If I don't like my boss, I can change my section." Monsanto India: Monsanto India is a flat organisation (three to four levels). Even these levels are often cut short through an open culture. Everyone sits in an open office. The workstations are the some size. The travel allowances are the same so are the refreshments of course it sets stiff targets for employees, but trains them with a rare rigour so that they get a fair shot at those. People identified as future leaders are rolled over challenging positions.

Job Analysis


A close look at the jobs inside Indias best work places

Cadbury India: Fun is serious business at Cadbury India. The HR manager's statement sums up the company's philosophy: We believe that the day you stop enjoying work is the day you stop contributing. We make people stretch: but we make them stretch with a smile." The company firmly believes that a smile a day keeps the market blues away. Philips Software Centre: The company's office in Bangalore, employees could have all the comforts in the world: a variety of cuisines, a creche, a gymnasium, bunker beds for naps, gym instructor, doctor, psychological counsellor, a dietician. It is a whole new world of work, play, study and rest. Not surprisingly, senior executives remain glued to their seats even after office hours. The company had to come out with an order recently stating that nobody should stay in the office after 9 p.m. without sufficient reason!

Job Analysis


Job Analysis In A Jobless World

Flatter organisations Work teams Boundary less organisations Reengineering exercises

Job Analysis