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Research Design

k e t i n g R e s e a r c h P r o c e s s

The Research Process

Step 1: Defining the Problem

Step 2: Developing an Approach to the Problem

Step 3: Formulating a Research Design Step 4: Doing Field Work or Collecting Data

Step 5: Preparing and Analyzing Data

Step 6: Preparing and Presenting the Report

Research Design
A master plan that specifies the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing needed information.

Types of Marketing Research

M arketing Research

Research Based on Purpose

Research Based on Source of Data

Research Based on Data Collection M ethod

Basic Research Applied Research

Prim Research ary Secondary Research

Qualitative Research Quantitative Research

Prelim inary


Perform ance

Tasks Involved In a Research Design

Figure 3.8 Tasks Involved in a Research Design

Define the Information Needed Design the Exploratory, Descriptive, and/or Causal Phases of the Research
Specify the Measurement and Scaling Procedures Construct a Questionnaire Specify the Sampling Process and the Sample Size Develop a Plan of Data Analysis
Todays Topic

A Classification of Market Research Designs

Research Design Exploratory Research Experience Surveys Pilot Studies Conclusive Research Case Studies

Secondary Data

A Classification of Market Research Designs

Research Design Exploratory Research Conclusive Research

Cross-sectional Study
Longitudinal Study

Descriptive Design

Causal Design Experiment

Secondary Data Study



Types of Research Designs

Exploratory research to gain ideas and insights Newspaper facing decreasing sales to generate possible explanation.
Descriptive research to obtain summary measures to address research questions (research objectives are clearly defined). Trends in lifestyle with respect to age, sex, etc. Causal research for cause-and-effect connection between managerial decisions and market outcome. How people react to a newspapers topic selection and space allocation.

Exploratory & Conclusive Research Differences

Exploratory Conclusive To test specific hypotheses and examine relationships. Information needed is clearly defined. Research process is formal and structured. Sample is large and representative. Data analysis is quantitative.


To provide insights and understanding. Information needed is defined only loosely. Research process is flexible and unstructured. Sample is small and non-representative. Analysis of primary data is qualitative.


Findings /Results: Outcome:



Generally followed by further Findings used as input into decision exploratory or conclusive research. making.

A Comparison of Basic Research Designs

Exploratory Objective: Discovery of ideas and insights Descriptive Describe market characteristics or functions Marked by the prior formulation of specific hypotheses Preplanned and structured design Causal Determine cause and effect relationships


Flexible, versatile

Manipulation of one or more independent variables

Control of other mediating variables Experiments

Often the front end of total research design Expert surveys Pilot surveys Secondary data Qualitative research


Secondary data Surveys Panels Observation and other data

Exploratory Research

Usually conducted during the initial stage of the research process Purposes To narrow the scope of the research topic, and To transform ambiguous problems into well-defined ones

Exploratory Research Techniques

Secondary Data Analysis

Secondary data are data previously collected & assembled for some project other than the one at hand
Pilot Studies

A collective term for any small-scale exploratory research technique that uses sampling but does not apply rigorous standards Includes
Focus Group Interviews
Unstructured, free-flowing interview with a small group of people

Projective Techniques
Indirect means of questioning that enables a respondent to project beliefs and feelings onto a third party or an inanimate object Word association tests, sentence completion tests, role playing

Exploratory Research Techniques

Case Studies Intensively investigate one or a few situations similar to the problem situation Experience Surveys Individuals who are knowledge about a particular research problem are questioned

Conclusive Research

Provide specific information that aids the decision maker in evaluating alternative courses of action Sound statistical methods & formal research methodologies are used to increase the reliability of the information Data sought tends to be specific & decisive Also more structured & formal than exploratory data

Types of Conclusive Research

Descriptive Research
Describes attitudes, perceptions, characteristics, activities and situations. Examines who, what, when, where, why, & how questions

Causal Research
Provides evidence that a cause-and-effect relationship exists or does not exist. Premise is that something (and independent variable) directly influences the behavior of something else (the dependent variable).

Common Characteristics of Descriptive Studies

Build on previous information Show relationships between variables Representative samples required Structured research plans Require substantial resources Conclusive findings

Major Types of Descriptive Studies

F i g u r e 3 . 5 M a j o r T y p e s o f D e s c r i p t i v e S t u d i e s

Descriptive Studies

Sales Studies

Consumer Perception And Behavior Studies

Market Characteristic Studies

Image Product Usage Advertising Pricing

Distribution Competitive Analysis

Market Share

Sales Analysis

Cross Sectional vs. Longitudinal Designs

F i g u r e 3 . 6 C r o s s S e c t i o n a l v s . L o n g i t u d i n a l D e s i g n s

Cross Sectional Design

Sample Surveyed at T1

Longitudinal Design

Sample Surveyed at T1

Same Sample also Surveyed at T2




Cross-Sectional vs. Longitudinal Designs



Detecting change
Amount of data collected Representativeness Response bias

Worse Better Better

Better Worse Worse

Common Characteristics of Causal Studies Logical Time Sequence

For causality to exist, the cause must either precede or occur simultaneously with the effect

Concomitant Variation
Extent to which the cause and effect vary together as hypothesized

Control for Other Possible Causal Factors

How Descriptive & Causal Designs Differ

Relationship between the variables Descriptive designs determine degree of association Causal designs infer whether one or more variables influence another variable Degree of environmental control Descriptive designs enjoy lesser degrees of control Order of the variables In descriptive designs, variables are not logically ordered

Comparison of Research Designs




ID problems, gain insights

Describe things

Determine causeand-effect relationships


Assumed background knowledge Degree of structure Flexibility Sample



Very little High Non-representative

High Some Representative

High Little Representative

Research environment



Highly controlled





Which is the Best Research Design & Method?

You cannot put the same shoe on every foot It depends on the problem of interest, level of information needed, resources, researchers experience, etc.

Descriptive Research 1. Surveys

May be used to reveal summary statistics by showing responses to all possible questionnaire items. Often provide leads in identifying needed changes May be used to explore relationships between 2 or more variables.

Descriptive Research Survey Forms

Written questionnaires
Personal interviews Telephone interviews
Factors to be considered Sampling Type of population Question Form Question Content Response rates Costs Available facilities Length of data collection Computer assisted techniques for data collection

Descriptive Research 2. Survey Form - Interviews More time efficient Allow the researcher to establish a rapport with the respondent Allow the acquisition of more in-depth information Allow for interviewer observation Allow the interviewer to obtain visual cues May be personal or telephone interviews

Descriptive Research Survey Form Personal Interviews

Disadvantages Require more staff time Require more travel time

Descriptive Research Survey Form Telephone Interview

Advantages Less expensive Less time-consuming

Disadvantages Limited telephone access Lack of interviewers ability to observe the respondent and obtain visual cues

Descriptive Research Survey Form Mailed Questionnaires

Ability to reach large number of people across a wide geographic area Ease and low cost of distribution Minimal amount of staff required Allows respondents to respond in their time frame

Disadvantages Lower response rate Need to design a survey instrument with a simple format

Descriptive Research Survey Form Mailed Questionnaires

A letter of transmittal should accompany mailed questionnaires. Should state purpose and importance of research Should state importance of responding Should give a time frame to respond Should include a confidentiality statement Should include an offer to share results Should include a thank-you note to the respondent

Descriptive Research Characteristics of a Good Survey

Good questioning techniques Use complete sentences Offer a limited set of answers Interesting Worded so that questions mean the same to all Provide definitions for confusing terms Uses the I dont know answer very carefully

Descriptive Research 3. Observational Research Methods 1. Naturally occurring behaviors observed in natural contexts 2. Contexts that are contrived to be realistic

Descriptive Research Observational Research Methods Require direct observation of behavior Data gathered without intermediary instruments Can yield a wealth of invaluable information Can be a complicated process

Descriptive Research Observational Research Methods Can be employed productively to support many purposes in educational technology Can be used to determine how people interact with technology in various stages of design and implementation

Descriptive Research Observational Research Methods

2 Forms of Observational Research
Structured Unstructured

Descriptive Research Observational Research Methods

Structured Observations Rigid and controlled Predetermined methods Unstructured Observations
Used to determine unselective, detailed, continuous description of behavior. Detects unintended effects More time consuming because of time and labor required to collect and analyze sets of extensive observations

Descriptive Research Observational Research Methods

Develop observation form May be paper and pencil or electronic May use a rating scale to evaluate behavior A 3-point rating scale is sufficient

Descriptive Research Observational Research Methods

Newer Mediated Observation Techniques Audio Videotape Computers provide on-line monitoring (process of capturing characteristics of the human-computer interaction automatically)
Keystroke records Logging data

Impact and Future of Descriptive Research

Descriptive Research methods have gained acceptance Number of descriptive studies published in research journals has increased Descriptive research leads to prescriptions that instructional designers and educators can heed as they consider future direction

Questions Addressed by Causal Research

* Marketing director of local beer company, Will replacing TV commercial A with commercial B lead to increase in consumer preference on our brand? * Chairman of a charity organization. Will it be worthwhile to mail to previous donors an attractive and expensive brochure to solicit higher contributions this year?

* The sales manager of a local life insurance company. Will training in the use of computers for client management increase agents sales?
* Marketing VP of fashion chain, Can we improve profitability of our fashion clothing line by increasing its price by 10%?

Causality: Cause-and-Effect Change-in-X causes change-in-Y Evidence of Causality

Concomitant variation: If X changes, then Y also changes. If X does not change, then Y does not change. Time order: cause (X) occurs before effect (Y).

Types of Experiments
Laboratory experiment
Research investigation in which investigator creates a situation with exact conditions so as to control some, and manipulate other, variables

Scientific investigation in which an investigator manipulates and controls one or more independent variables and observes the dependent variable for variation concomitant to the manipulation of the independent variables

Field experiment
Research study in a realistic situation in which one or more independent variables are manipulated by the experimenter under as carefully controlled conditions as the situation will permit