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DNA Structure and Function

Chapter 6

6.2 Chromosomes

A eukaryotic chromosome is a molecule of DNA together with associated proteins Chromosome


Structure made of DNA and associated proteins Carries part or all of a cells genetic information

Chromosome Structure

Sister chromatid
One of two attached members of a duplicated eukaryotic chromosome

Centromere
Constricted region in a eukaryotic chromosome where sister chromatids are attached

Chromosome Structure
Proteins organize DNA structurally
Allow chromosomes to pack tightly

Histone
Type of protein that structurally organizes eukaryotic chromosomes

Nucleosome
A length of DNA wound around a spool of histone proteins

Chromosome Structure

Chromosome Number
A eukaryotic cells DNA is divided into a characteristic number of chromosomes Chromosome number
Sum of all chromosomes in a cell of a given type A human body cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes

Diploid
Cells having two of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species (2n)

Karyotype

Examples of Chromosome Number

Types of Chromosomes
There are two types of eukaryotic chromosomes: autosomes and sex chromosomes Autosomes
Paired chromosomes with the same length, shape, centromere location, and genes Any chromosome other than a sex chromosome

Sex chromosomes
Members of a pair of chromosomes that differ between males and females

Sex Chromosomes: Sex Determination in Humans

diploid reproductive cell in female

diploid reproductive cell in male

XX

XY

eggs X X

sperm X Y

X X X XX XX

Y XY XY

union of sperm and egg at fertilization

Stepped Art Fig. 6-3a, p. 104

Karyotype

Karyotyping reveals characteristics of an individuals chromosomes Karyotype


Image of an individuals complement of chromosomes arranged by size, length, shape, and centromere location

Key Players
Erwin Chargaff, Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins, James Watson, and Francis Crick

The Double Helix


A DNA molecule consists of two strands of nucleotide monomers running in opposite directions and coiled into a double helix DNA nucleotide
A five-carbon sugar (deoxyribose) Three phosphate groups One nitrogen-containing base (adenine, thymine, guanine, or cytosine)

The Double Helix

Two double-helix strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between nucleotide bases Chargaffs rules
Bases of the two DNA strands in a double helix pair in a consistent way: A = T and C = G Proportions of A and G vary among species

Patterns of Base Pairing


The order of bases (DNA sequence) varies among species and among individuals
Each species has characteristic DNA sequences

DNA sequence
The order of nucleotide bases in a strand of DNA

6.4 DNA Replication and Repair


A cell replicates its DNA before it divides Each strand of the double helix serves as a template for synthesis of a new, complementary strand of DNA DNA replication results in two double-stranded DNA molecules identical to the parent

DNA Replication and Repair


During DNA replication, the double-helix unwinds DNA polymerase uses each strand as a template to assemble new, complementary strands of DNA from free nucleotides DNA ligase seals any gaps to form a continuous strand

1) The two strands of a DNA molecule are complementary: their nucleotides match up according to base-pairing rules (G to C, T to A).

2) As replication starts, the two strands of DNA unwind at many sites along the length of the molecule.

3) Each parent strand serves as a template for assembly of a new DNA strand from nucleotides, according to base-pairing rules.

4) DNA ligase seals any gaps that remain between bases of the new DNA, so a continuous strand forms. The base sequence of each half-old, half-new DNA molecule is identical to that of the parent.

Stepped Art Fig. 6-8, p. 108

DNA Replication: The Double Helix

Checking for Mistakes

DNA repair mechanisms fix damaged DNA


Proofreading by DNA polymerase corrects most base-pairing errors

DNA repair mechanisms


Any of several processes by which enzymes repair DNA damage

Mutations

Uncorrected errors in DNA replication may become mutations Mutation


A permanent change in DNA sequence

6.5 Cloning Adult Animals

Reproductive cloning technologies produce an exact genetic copy of an individual (clone) Reproductive cloning
Technology that produces genetically identical individuals

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer


Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
Method of reproductive cloning in which nuclear DNA from an adult somatic cell is transferred into an unfertilized, enucleated egg

Therapeutic cloning
Using SCNT to produce human embryos for research

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

Clones
Clone produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer