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RAIL STRESSES

- Nilmani, Prof Track

Stresses in Rail
Residual Stress
Thermal stress Flexural stress

Contact stress

Assessment Methodology Adopted


Determination of Ultimate Tensile Strength of rail steel Determination of Yield Strength of rail steel Calculation of induced stresses due to rolling stock, thermal variation, manufacturing of rail, and other unforeseen factors. Sum of induced stresses should not exceed yield strength

RDSOs Rational Approach based on Yield criteria


All unfavorable factors do not occur together Identify critical locations based on studies, trials and experiments. Use the criteria to broadly ascertain stress magnitude. Analyze failures. Observe effects and apply corrections, if required.

Typical Values Adopted on IR


S No Item Value in kg/mm2 72UTS 90UTS rails rails Ultimate tensile strength 76.9 90.0 Yield strength (52% of average value of observed 40.00 46.80 UTS) Reduction for unforeseen reasons such as flexed 4.00 4.80 laying on curve, uneven heating of rail faces etc @ 10% of yield strength Reduction for thermal stresses in LWR 10.75 10.75 Reduction for residual stresses in rails 6.00 6.00 Balance for induced stresses due to rolling 19.25 25.25 stock(permissible stresses on yield consideration)

1 2 3

4 5 6

Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS)


Regularly measured at Steel Plants
Mean UTS of rail steel for 880 grade rails is 931Mpa with standard deviation of 15.5MPa.

Average UTS obtained during investigations by M&C Directorate of RDSO for used rails Values considered
90 UTS (880 grade) - 893MPa 72UTS - 812Mpa 770MPa for 72UTS 900 MPa for 90UTS rails

Yield Strength
By convention, yield strength of 72 UTS rails has been taken as 40kg/mm2 , taking 52% of the average value of UTS obtained for rail procured i.e. 72 to 82 kg/mm2 As per provisions of relevant IS Code for steel having chemical composition similar to rail, yield strength should be taken as 55% of the minimum UTS which works out to 0.55X72= 39.6kg/mm2

Yield Strength

By a similar logic, yield strength of 90UTS rails works out to 0.55x90 = 49.5kg/mm2.

Residual Stresses
Result of rail manufacturing process- due to differences in time of phase transformations in railhead, web and foot during rail cooling Tensile in railhead and base and compressive in web Value of maximum residual stress in IRS T 12 Specification - 14% of rail UTS ( 12.6 kg/mm2 for 90 UTS) Assumed value at the bottom flange are 6 kg/mm2 - this is an ad-hoc value

Unforeseen Reasons
A factor of safety of 10% of yield strength ( 4 kg/mm2 in 72 UTS rails and 4.8 kg/mm2 in 90 UTS rails) has been included
This is to cater for unforeseen factors, namely flexed laying of rails in curve, one sided sun radiation etc

The stresses on account of impact of wheel irregularities, wheel flats, rail/weld irregularities are not taken into account, considering them to be of instantaneous nature

Thermal Stresses
Earlier calculations Maximum annual range of variation in rail temperature in India is about 76 degree C Distressing temperature range - tm to tm+5 Maximum temperature difference between the distressing temperature and minimum rail temperature works out to 43 degree C Thermal stress of 10.75 kg/mm2

Flexural Stresses
These stresses are introduced in the rail on account of action of rolling stock Pure bending due to vertical load Bending action due to eccentricity of vertical load Twisting due to flange force Lateral bending due to flange force

Flexural Stresses
The Eisenmann method used on Indian Railway for calculation of rail stress due to rolling stock is based on theory of beam on elastic foundation by Timoshenko. The method uses double track modulus.

The solution of the differential equation was first proposed by Zimmermann


Q EI u EI d4w dx4 = -uw x w(x)

Flexural Stresses

Maximum Bending Moment = 0.318*P*x1 X1 = (/4)(4*E*I/U)**0.25

Track Modulus
Track modulus is defined as load per unit length of rail to cause unit depression of track Load deflection graph consists of 2 straight lines one for initial loading and other for loading in elastic range RDSO undertook trials on PSC sleeper track, density 1540/1660 per km, in June-Aug 2005

Typical Observations on Load-Deflection


4.5 4

Pi = 5.8 t Ui = 214.85 kg/cm/cm Ue = 339.18 kg/cm/cm

3.5

Deflection

y = 0.1719x + 0.4129

2.5

1.5

0.5

y = 0.2421x - 0.0036
0 0 2 4 6 8

5.8 t

Load

10

12

14

16

18

14 12 10
Stress

Correlation between observed and calculated stresses in rail


Pi = 5.8 t Ui = 214.85 kg/cm/cm Ue = 339.18 kg/cm/cm

Observed Calculated

8 6 4 2 0

8 Load 10

12

14

16

18

Recommended Track Modulus Values


Sleeper Density Old Values Track Modulus in kg/cm/cm (BG) Initial Elastic 75 300 425 540

New Values at 125 1540/km New Values at 135 1660/km

Rail section properties

For working out rail stresses, the properties like moment of inertia and section modulus of rails are assumed 10% lesser than the properties for new rails.

The wear is assumed to be 5%.

Speed/impact factor

For BG vehicles, the graphs plotted in RDSOs report C-100 are being followed for different vehicles. In case of M.G. vehicles, similar graphs plotted in Report C-92 are being used. Where the measured values of dynamic augment are not available , the dynamic augment values for similar vehicles are to be adopted.

Management Strategies
Rail Grinding Rail Lubrication High Yield/UTS rails In Motion Weigh Bridges Wheel Impact Load Detection System (WILD)

AT 75KMPH , ON 52KG, M+7(1540nos/km), 250MM TRACK (WITH DOUBLE TRACK MODULUS METHOD)

Calculation of 4 types of stresses


a) Rail stresses due to vertical bending b) Stresses due to eccentricity of vertical load c) Stress due to twisting by flange force d) Stresses due to lateral deflection under flange force

For the first 4 tonnes live wheel load, Initial track modulus (i) = 125Kg/cm/cm For rest of live wheel load Elastic track modulus (e) = 425 Kg/cm/cm Assume I & Z of 5 % worn rail are reduced by 10 %

Moment of inertia about xx-axis, Ixx (worn) = 1942. 2cm4 Compression , Zc (worn) = 241.65 cm 3 Tension , Zt (worn) = 256.95cm 3

X1 = The distance from the load to the point of contra flexure of the rail in cm. = 42.33 * ( Ixx(worn) / )1/4 For initial load of 4t, X1i = 42.33 *(1942.2 / 125)1/4 = 84.04 cm For rest of the load, X1e = 42.33 * (1942.2 / 425)1/4 = 61.89 cm

Impact factor at 75Km/h = 53 % (taken from graph plotted in RDSO report no. C-100.) Axle Load Wheel Load = 21.82 tonnes = 10.91 tonnes

Dynamic wheel load = 10.91 * 1.53 = 16.69t

Tlv considering initial load of 4 tonnes


1 200.0 Effect of Wheel no.1 4 2 452.4 -0.76 -3 200.0 -4

Effect of Wheel no.2


Effect of Wheel no.3

-0.76
--

4
--

-4

--0.76

Effect of Wheel no.4


Virtual wheel load

-3.24

-3.24

-0.76
3.24

4
3.24

B.M Co-efficient from master diagram


With Xli = 84.04cm With X1e = 61.89cm

For 200 cm For 452.4 cm For 652.4 cm

(-) 0.19 (-) 0 0

(-) 0.10 0 0

Effects of adjacent wheels


For initial load of 4 t For elastic loading (balance of dynamic wheel load) 12.69 * (-) .10 = -1.269t

4 * (-).19 = - .76t

If the distance between adjacent axle is more than 6 *Xli , Effect of leading wheel is to be taken in consideration, In the present case,
6 * Xli = 6 * 84.04 = 504.24 cm No wheel except wheel nos. 1 and 4 is having effect of leading axle

Adding 10% for the effect of leading wheel Tl v = 3.24 + 0.324 = 3.564 t.

Tlv considering remaining load.


1
200.0 Effect of Wheel no.1 12.69 -1.269

3
452.4 --

4
200.0 --

Effect of Wheel no.1


Effect of Wheel no.1 Effect of Wheel no.1 Virtual wheel load

-1.269
--11.421

12.69
--11.421

-12.69 -1.269 11.421

--1.269 12.69 11.421

6 * X1e = 6 * 61.89 = 371.34 cm Wheel 2 & 3 will also have leading wheel effect Tlv for wheel nos. 1 & 4 = 11.421+1.1421 = 12.5631 t Tlv for wheel nos. 2 & 3 = 11.421+1.1421 = 12.5631 t

For max. Value of Tlv, the Tlv due to initial and elastic loading will be added.
1 Tlv due to initial loading Tlv due to elastic loading 3.564 12.5631 2 3.24 12.5631 3 3.24 12.5631 4 3.564 12.5631

Total Tlv

16.1271

15.8031

15.8031

16.1271

Max. Tlv =

16.1271 t

B.M. in rail = 0.318*P*x1 =(0.318 * 84.04 * 3.564)+ (0.318 * 61.89 * 12.5631) =95.246 + 247.254 = 342.50 t.cm Stress in head (comp) = 342.5 / 241.65 = 1.417 t /cm2 = 14.17 Kg/mm2 --------- (a) Stress in foot (tensile) = 342.5 / 256.95 t /cm2 = 1.332 t /cm2

= 13.32 Kg/mm2

-------- (a)

Eccentricity (e) = 1.5cm (assumed) Torque = 2Mt = TLv * e Mt = 16.1271 * 1.5 / 2 = 12.095325 t.cm Note : (E*I1*h1*r) / C*Z1 = 0.0351 (E*I *h1*r) / C*Z2 = 0.0247

(i) Stress in head = (Mt*E*I1*h1*R) / C*Z1 = 12.095325 *0.0351 = 0.427 t/cm2 = 4.27 Kg/mm2 ------- (b)

ii) Stress in foot = (Mt*E*I1*h1*R) / C*Z2 = 12.095325 * 0.2470 = 0.298 t/cm2 = 2.98 Kg/mm2 -------- (b)

Prud Hommes Formula HY 0.85 (1+ P/3) HY - Lateral force per axle P Axle load

Max. Flange force/axle = 0.85(1 + 21.82 / 3) = 7.032t

Flange force / wheel = 3.516 t 2 Mt = 3.516 * hf Mt = 3.516 * 10.958 / 2 = 19.264164 t.cm

(i) Stress in head = (Mt*E*I1*h1*R) / C*Z1 =0.676 t/cm2 = 6.76kg/mm2 --------------- (c) ii) Stress in foot
= (Mt*E*I1*h1*R) / C*Z2

= 0.485 t/cm2 = 4.85 kg/mm2 --------------- (c)

Flange force / wheel = 3.516 t Sleeper spacing = 68 cm BM =Lateral force*spacing/4 = (3.516 * 68) / 4 = 59.772 t-cm

Lateral Modulus (head) Z3 - 108.253cm3 Stress (head) = 59.772 / 108.253 = 5.52 Kg/mm2 --- (d) Lateral Modulus(foot) Z4 - 53.324 cm3 Stress (foot) = 59.772 / 53.324 = 11.20 Kg/mm2 ---(d)

For head (a + c + d - b) = 14.17+ 6.76+ 5.52 - 4.27 = 22.18Kg/mm2 For foot (a + b + d - c) =13.33+ 2.98+11.20 4.85 = 22.66 Kg/mm2

Contact Stresses
The contact of rail-wheel results in small contact patch and high contact pressure. Typically, contact is made over a quasielliptical contact patch of the size of a coin of 13mm diameter. Immediately below the contact patch, the steel is under tremendous pressure from all directions as the contact pressure is supported by reaction pressure from surrounding material.

Contact Stress
The contact shear stress developed at a depth of 5-7mm below top table in the head of the rail Tmax = 4.13 *(Q / R)1/2 Tmax = Contact shear stress in Kg/mm2 Q = wheel pressure in kg (static wheel load + 1 tonne to account for constant on-loading on the curves) R = wheel radius in mm ( Worn wheel radius) The permissible value for this stress is taken as 30% of UTS of rail ,i.e. 21.6 kg/mm2 for 72UTS rails

Formation Pressure
Pmax = (2P*S / *D*L)* (U / (64EI))1/4
where, Pmax = Maximum formation pressure in kg/cm2 P = Dynamic wheel load in kgs. S = Sleeper spacing in cm D = Depth of ballast in cm. L = Effective length of sleeper per rail seat in cm, 76/63 cm for BG/MG
contd.

Formation Pressure
U= Track Modulus kg/cm/cm(using elastic track modulus value only) E= Modulus of elasticity of rail steel in kg/cm2. I = M.I. of rail in cm4.

Permissible limits of formation pressure


Locomotives Other stock like, Wagons, coaches only 3.0 kg/cm2

3.5 kg/cm2

Joint Loading
Due to the effect of unsuspended masses and speeds the joints are subjected to severe overloads given by the formula: F = Fo + 0.1188 V (W)1/2
Where, F = Fo =

V W

= =

Dynamic overload at joint in tonnes Static wheel load including sprung and unsprung masses in tones Velocity in km/h Unsprung mass per wheel in tonnes.

Joint Loading
Permissible values being adopted
Locomotive EMU stock Wagons & coaches

B.G.

27 tonnes

23 tonnes

19 tonnes

M.G

17 tonnes

14 tonnes

11 tonnes

WHEEL IMPACT LOAD DETECTOR

Defective Wheel

Instrumented Track Pictures

Signal from Instrumented track


Defective Wheel Noral Wheel

Calculation

Calculation
L Rail L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 Load T 10.3 11.1 10.5 10.1 22.3 R Rail R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 Load T 10.2 10.9 10.5 10.7 28.3 L Rail L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 Load T 10.3 11.1 10.5 10.1 22.3 R Rail R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 Load T 10.2 10.9 10.5 10.7 28.3

Second Left Max Dy Wheel Load

Second Right Max Dy Wheel Load

L6
L7 L8 L9 L10 L11 L12

11.5
10.4 10.7 10.8 10 42.3 10.6

R6
R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12

10.4
10.8 10.1 10.3 10.1 48.3 10.1

L6
L7 L8 L9 L10

11.5
10.4 10.7 10.8 10 42.3 10.6

R6
R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12

10.4
10.8 10.1 10.3 10.1 48.3 10.1

First Left Max Dy Wheel Load

L11 L12

First Right Max Dy Wheel Load

Management Strategies Proposed WILD Alarm Levels Maintenance Alarm: ILF 2.0-4.5 or Impact Load 20-35t Attention in next Schedule maintenance
Critical Alarm : ILF > 4.5 or Impact Load > 35t Attention at next TXR point orr detachment within next 50 km

List of Currently installed WILD Systems on Indian Railways (www.irwild.net)


SER-Mahalimarup-18/07/2007 SWR-Hospet-22/07/2007 SECR-Bhilai-28/11/2007 SR-Arakkonam-21/12/2007 ECR-Mugalsarai-10/04/2008 ECR-Mugalsarai-10/04/2008 SCR-Guntakal-25/02/2008 ER-Asansol-24/04/2008 ECoR-Vishakapatnam-30/05/2008