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A resource is a source or supply from which benefit is produced. Typically resources are materials or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit and in the process may be consumed or made unavailable. From a human perspective a natural resource is anything obtained from the environment to satisfy human needs and wants. From a broader biological or ecological perspective a resource satisfies the needs of a living organism

The lithosphere is the solid, outer part of the Earth. The Earth consists of three main layers: the core, or the inner layer; the mantle, in the middle; and the crust, which includes the continents and ocean floor. The lithosphere, which is about 100 kilometers (60 miles) deep in most places, includes the brittle upper portion of the mantle and the crust. The lithosphere is always moving, but very slowly. It is broken into huge sections called tectonic plates. The extreme heat from the mantle part of the lithosphere makes it easier for the plates to move; this is similar to how iron is bendable once it's heated. The movement of the lithosphere, called plate tectonics, is the reason behind a lot of Earth's most dramatic geologic events. When one plate moves beneath another, or when two plates rub together, they can create earthquakes and volcanoes.

The hydrosphere is the liquid water component of the Earth. It includes the oceans, seas, lakes, ponds, rivers and streams. The hydrosphere covers about 70% of the surface of the Earth and is the home for many plants and animals. The hydrosphere, like the atmosphere, is always in motion. The motion of rivers and streams can be easily seen, while the motion of the water within lakes and ponds is less obvious. Some of the motion of the oceans and seas can be easily seen while the large scale motions that move water great distances such as between the tropics and poles or between continents are more difficult to see. These types of motions are in the form of currents that move the warm waters in the tropics toward the poles, and colder water from the polar regions toward the tropics. These currents exist on the surface of the ocean and at great depths in the ocean (up to about 4km).

The present atmosphere of the Earth is probably not its original atmosphere. Our current atmosphere is what chemists would call an oxidizing atmosphere, while the original atmosphere was what chemists would call a reducing atmosphere. In particular, it probably did not contain oxygen. The original atmosphere may have been similar to the composition of the solar nebula and close to the present composition of the Gas Giant planets, though this depends on the details of how the planets condensed from the solar nebula. That atmosphere was lost to space, and replaced by compounds out gassed from the crust or (in some more recent theories) much of the atmosphere may have come instead from the impacts of comets and other planetesimals rich in volatile materials. The oxygen so characteristic of our atmosphere was almost all produced by plants (cyan bacteria or, more colloquially, blue-green algae). Thus, the present composition of the atmosphere is 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, and 1% other gases.


Biotic Factors Biotic, meaning of or related to life, are living factors. Plants, animals, fungi, protist and bacteria are all biotic or living factors. Abiotic Factors Abiotic, meaning not alive, are nonliving factors that affect living organisms. Environmental factors such habitat (pond, lake, ocean, desert, mountain) or weather such as temperature, cloud cover, rain, snow, hurricanes, etc. are abiotic factors.

The biosphere is the part of the Earth, including air, land, surface rocks, and water, within which life occurs, and which biotic processes in turn alter or transform. From the broadest biophysiological point of view, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. This biosphere is postulated to have evolved, beginning through a process of biogenesis or bioprocess, at least some 3.5 billion years ago.

Ecology is the relationship of living things to each other and to whats around them. So, if you are learning about what kinds of relationships fish have with other animals (including us!) and plants in their neighborhood, then you are learning about ecology.

Smog is a combination of the words smoke and fog. It's formed when gases and fine particulate matter react in the presence of sun and heat. Smog is made up of a lot of pollutants. Most harmful to our health and to the natural environment are those that come from cars, trucks and machines that run on fuels like gasoline. Chemical sprays, oil-based paints, wind-blown dust and other airborne fine particles from factories and construction sites add to the problem.

The atmosphere covers the earth like a blanket. Air is a bad conductor of heat. It prevents sudden increase in temperature during the day and also slows down the escape of heat during the night. So the atmosphere keeps the average temperature of the earth fairly steady during the day and throughout the year. The movement of air (Winds) :When air gets heated, it rises up and produces low pressure and cool air moves in to take its place. The movement of air causes winds. During the day the land gets heated faster than the sea. So the hot air above the land rises up and cool air from the sea moves towards the land. During the night sea cools down slowly than the land. So the hot air above the sea rises up and cool air from the land moves towards the sea.

When water bodies are heated during the day, a large amount of water evaporates and rises up. Some water vapor also get into the atmosphere due to biological activities like transpiration. As the water vapor rises, it cools and condenses to form tiny droplets of water. This appears as clouds. When the tiny droplets of water join together to form bigger drops of water, they fall down as rain, snow or hail.

Acid rain
Acid gases are produced when fossil fuels like coal and oil are burned in power stations, factories and in our own homes. Most of these acid gases are blown into the sky, and when they mix with the clouds it can cause rain - or snow, sleet, fog, mist or hail - to become more acidic.

The increase in the content of harmful substances in the air is called air pollution. Fossil fuels like coal and petroleum contain small amounts of nitrogen and sulphur. When these fuels are burnt, it release oxides of sulphur and nitrogen. These oxides dissolve in rain and causes acid rain. Burning of fossil fuels also release unburnt carbon particles which reduces visibility. During cold weather along with condensed water it forms smog. Regular breathing air containing these harmful substances causes allergies, cancer, heart diseases etc.

Acid rain
Ozone depletion Global warming

In human population-

respiratory problems, allergies, strengthens lugs, and a risk for cancer

Combustion of gasoline and

other hydrocarbon fuels in cars, trucks, and airplanes Burning of fossil fuels (oil, coal, and dinosaur bones) Insecticides Herbicides Everyday radioactive fallouts Dust from fertilizers Mining operations Livestock feedlots

Air Quality Management

Plan Development of new technology- electric cars, cleaner fuels, low nitrogen oxide boilers and water healers, zero polluting paints, less polluting BBQ lighter fluids Use of natural gas Carpooling Follow the laws enacted

A very large area of the earths surface is covered with water. Water is also found inside the earth, in the atmosphere as water vapour. The water in seas and oceans is saline. Fresh water is found in rivers, lakes, ponds and as ice and snow at the poles and mountains in cold regions. Water is needed by living organisms because all life processes and cellular activities need water. So all organisms need water to survive. The amount of water and other factors like temperature and nature of soil decides the diversity of species and the number of individuals of each species in an area.

Water pollution :The increase in the content of harmful substances in water is called water pollution. Water pollution is caused by addition of harmful substances like fertilisers and pesticides from farms, sewage from towns, cities and factories, harmful chemicals from factories, disease causing microorganisms, changes in the amount of oxygen dissolved in water or changes in the temperature of water.

Sources of Pollution

comes from a specific source, like a pipe factories, industry, municipal treatment plants can be monitored and controlled by a permit system


Formation of soil :Soil is formed by the breaking down of rocks on the surface of the earth by physical, chemical and biological processess. - The sun heats the rocks during the day and the rocks expand and at night the rocks cool and contracts. This causes the rocks to crack and break into smaller pieces. - Water enters the cracks in the rocks and when water freezes, it expands and causes the cracks in the rocks to widen and break into smaller pieces. The flowing water carries the rock pieces. These pieces rub against each other and become smaller and smaller particles. Strong winds also breaks rocks into smaller particles and carries it from one place to the other. The roots of large trees grow into the cracks in rocks and breaks it into smaller pieces. Lichens which grow on rocks produce some substance which cause the rock surface to powder and become soil.

c) Soil pollution :The addition of harmful substances which affects the fertility of the soil and kills the diversity of organisms living in it is called soil pollution. Soil pollution is caused by the excessive use of fertilisers and pesticides. It kills the organisms like earthworms and bacteria which makes the soil rich in humus. The removal of useful components and addition of other harmful substances reduces the fertility of soil and causes soil pollution.


Nitrogen in atmosphere
Dentrification Nitrogen fixation Protoplasm In plants Protoplasm in animals Nitrification Nitrites Ammonification




Atmospheric fixation

CO2 in atmosphere

Respiration and decomposition

Organic compounds In plants


Organic compounds In animals

Carbonates in water

Inorganic carbonates shells





Atmospheric oxygen O2
Organic molecules Glucose C6H1206



Carbon dioxide CO2 Water H2O


Ozone molecule contains three atoms of oxygen (O3). It is present in the upper layers of the atmosphere. It is poisonous gas. It protects the earth from the harmful ultra-violet radiations from the sun which is harmful for living organisms. The ozone layer is being damaged by carbon compounds like chloro fluoro carbons (CFSs). To prevent the damage to the ozone layer, the use of (CFSs) is being reduced.