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SECTION 1.

1
Objectives: Student will be able to: 1. Give at least 2 numbers belonging to any subsets of R 2. Recognize and classify a set of given numbers accordingly 3. State the relationship among

R, Q, Z, W and N

The Real Number System

Type of Number

Definition

Examples

Real Number R

Numbers that can -1, -3.45, 0, , be represented by , 3, , , points on a number 10-3, 14/3, 3(-12), line 343, 3.1414, etc

** e = 2.718281828459045235360287471352662497757

The Real Number System

Type of Number

Definition

Examples

Natural Number N

The set of counting numbers which is 1,2,3,4,16, also a subset of 24/4, 343 etc real number N = {1,2,3,4,}

The Real Number System

Type of Number Whole Number W

Definition The set of natural numbers plus a 0 W = {0,1,2,3,4,}

Examples 0,1,2,3,16, 24/4, 343 etc

The Real Number System

Type of Number

Definition

Examples

Integer The set of natural -16, -3, -2, numbers, their negatives -1, 0, 1, 2, Z and 0 24/4, 343 etc Z={,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,}

The Real Number System

Type of Number Rational Number Q

Definition A subset of real number that can be written as a quotient p/q where p,q Z and q 0 Q = {p/q |p,q Z, q 0}

Examples -1, -3.45, 0, , , 10-3, 14/3, 343, 3.1414, etc

The Real Number System

Type of Number Irrational Number Q or I

Definition

Examples

A subset of real -3.4512,e, numbers that are not , 3(-12),2, rational or numbers , etc whose decimal parts neither repeat nor terminate

The Real Number System Example: 1. True or False? a. W N b. R Q Z W N c. W Z = N 2. Given E = { -3.456, -25, e, 0, 23/3, 2.3434, 37 27/9, -16, 3-253, 3.412} Find a. A = { rational numbers} b. B = { integers} c. C = { irrational numbers}

The Real Number System Notes:


a. -16 is known as an imaginary number that is part of a complex number a + bi where i =-1 b. Real numbers consist of rational and irrational numbers only. i.e. R = Q U Q

c. Prime numbers = All natural numbers > 1 which have no divisors except themselves and 1
d. Composite numbers = All natural number > 1 which are not prime numbers e. Even numbers = All integers that are divisible by 2. f. Odd numbers = All integers that are not divisible by 2.

Exercise 1
1. Given E = { -3.456, -16, 0, 2.3434, 317, 27/3, -16, 3253, 3.412, 211} Find a. A = { rational numbers} b. B = { positive integers} c. C = { irrational numbers} 2. Find the exact fraction for the rational number 2.363636

SECTION 1.2
Objectives: Student will be able to: 1. Represent a real number interval with the proper brackets 2. Know some basic properties of absolute values 3. Use the appropriate rules of indices to simplify expressions 4. Use the appropriate rules of indices to solve exponent equations

Real Number Intervals a < b, a, b R i. { x : a < x < b} = ( a , b) open interval o o a b ii. { x : a x b } = [a , b] closed interval

Real Number Intervals


a < b, a, b R iii. { x : a < x b} = ( a , b] half-open interval o a b iv. { x : a x < b} = [a , b) half-open interval o a b

Real Number Intervals a < b, a, b R v. { x : a x < } = [ a , ) infinite interval

a
vi. { x : - < x b} = (- , b] infinite interval

Absolute value a R, |a| = a if a 0 = -a if a < 0 TRUE or FALSE?

a. |ab| = |a|.|b|
b. |a/b| = |a| / |b| c. |a + b| = |a| + |b| d. a |b| = |ab| e. |ab| = |ba|

Exponents
m n m+n Rules:a. a a = a

b. am/an = am-n
c. (am)n = amn

d. (ab)m = ambm
e. a-m = 1/am

f. a0 = 1 , a 0
g. a1/n = na

Example:
1. Simplify the expression: a. (x-1)-1/3 + (x-1)2/3 x b. 4.3n 9.3n-1 3n+3 - 8.3n+1 Ans.: 1/(x-1)1/3; 1/3; 2; -1,1 2. Solve

a. 23x = 4x+1
b. 32x+1 - 10(3x) + 3 = 0

SECTION 1.3
Objectives: Student will be able to: 1. Simplify given expressions with surds 2. Solve equations involving surds

Surds A surd is an irrational number in the form of


n

a
2

where a Q & n = 2,3,4,

For n =2,

a = a
a a a
2 2

Notes:
a. b = ab

( a b)( a b) a b
a b c d

then a=c & b =d

Example
1. True or False? a. b.
a b a b 1 a a a

c. (a b )( a b ) a b d.
81 is a surd

2. Find the exact value of

1 1 2 7 3 2 7 3
Ans: FTFF; 6/19; 2 +5; 5

3. Find the square root of 7 + 210

4. Solve

2x 1 x 1 5

SECTION 1.4

Objectives: Student will be able to: 1. Use the appropriate rules in simplifying logarithmic expressions 2. Solve logarithmic equations

Logarithm If N = ax loga N = x and N must be positive Rules:

a. loga (xy) = loga x + loga y


b. loga (x/y) = loga x - loga y c. loga xn = n loga x d. loga x = logb x / logb a e. loga x = 1/logx a f. loga a = 1 g. loga1 = 0 ln x = loge x log x = log10 x

Example 1. True or False? a. log(-3) = -log3 b. log(x-y) = log x log y c. log x / log y = log x log y Homework: From your tutorial book do no. 11 16. Hand in 3 days after lectures.
Ans: FFFT;1.19; 2,8; 2,6

d. eln x = x

2. Solve 2x+1 = 32x-1 giving the answer to 3 significant figures 3. Solve log2 x + logx 8 = 4 4. Solve: 2 + log(2x-3) = log x2 + log 25

SECTION 1.5
Objectives: Student will be able to: 1. Know the definition of a complex number 2. Use the correct rules to add two given complex numbers 3. Use the correct rules to multiply two given complex numbers

Complex Number C

z = a + bi where a and b are real numbers


and i = 1
Rules:

i (
2

1) 1
2

i3 = (i)2.i = - i i4 = (i2)2 = (-1)2 = 1 e.g. i27 = (i2)13.i = (-1)13.i = -i


e.g. i2000 = (i2)1000 = (-1)1000 = 1

Complex Number C Operation: a. a + bi + c + di = (a+c) + (b+d)i

b.
c.

a + bi (c + di) = (a-c) + (b-d)i


(a + bi).(c + di) = ac-bd + (ad+bc)i

z = a + bi and z* = a bi are complex conjugates: where (a + bi)(a - bi) = a2 + b2


Equality of two complex numbers: If a + bi = c + di then a = c and b = d

Example: 1. Find the value of x and y: (x+iy)(3-i) = -3 + 11i 2. If z = 2+3i, express in the form of a +bi, the numbers (1- iz)2 and z2/(3-z)2 3. If z = 4+3i, express in the form of a +bi: a) (z-i)(z-5)(z+2i) b) (z+i)/(z+5i)

Ans:-2,3; 12-16i, -8/25 -63i/50; -90-10i, 3/5 i/5

SECTION 1.6

Objectives: Student will be able to: 1. Represent a given complex number with an Argand diagram 2. Find the modulus and argument of a given complex number

Complex Number C

Argand Diagram:
Y (imaginary part)

(a,b)

z = a + bi
0 a

b X (real part)

If z = a + bi then modulus z =|z| = a2 + b2 If z = a + bi then Argument z =Arg(z) = = tan-1(b/a) where - <

Example:
1. Find the modulus and argument of z1z2 if z1 = 3 +i and z2 = 2-4i 2. Given z1 = 3+2i and z2 = 4-3i, find z1z2 and z1/z2 in the form of a +bi. Find also |z1z2| 3. If z = 2/(-1+i), express z in the form of a +bi. Find |z| and arg(z).

4. If z = -3 + i and w = 2+4i, find |zw| and arg(z/w).


Ans:102, -/4; 18-I,6/25+17i/25,513;-1-i,2, -3/4;-10-10i,1.71