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Who Are Managers?


Manager
Someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished.

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WHY ORGANIZATIONS NEED MANAGERS?


To ensure the organization serves its basic purpose- the efficient production of goods & services; To design & maintain the stability of the operations of the organisation; To take charge of strategy-making and adapt the organisation in a controlled way to changes in environment; To ensure the organist ion serves the ends of those people who control it; & To serve as the key informational link between the organisation & the environment. Page 3

CLASSIFYING MANAGERS/ LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT


ON THE BASIS OF TASKS
Functional Manager General Manager

ON THE BASIS OF RESPONSIBILITY


First Line Managers/Junior Managers Middle Managers Top Managers/ Senior Managers

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ON THE BASIS OF TASKS


Functional Managers
Responsible for only one organizational activity, such as production, marketing, sales or finance.

General Managers
Oversees a complex unit, such as a company or an independent operating unit. He is responsible for all the activities of the unit, such as production, finance, Page 5 marketing etc.

ON THE BASIS OF RESPONSIBILITY


First-line Managers Individuals who manage the work of non-managerial employees. Middle Managers Individuals who manage the work of first-line managers. Top Managers Individuals who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization.

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Managerial Levels

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MANAGERIAL SKILLS
Technical skills
Knowledge and proficiency in a specific field

Human skills
The ability to work well with other people

Conceptual skills
The ability to think and conceptualize about abstract and complex situations concerning the organization
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Skills Needed at Different Management Levels


FIRST LINE MANAGEMENT MIDDLE MANAGEMENT TOP MANAGEMENT

Conceptual Human

Conceptual

Conceptual

Human
Human

Technical

Technical

Technical

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Conceptual Skills
Using information to solve business problems Identifying of opportunities for innovation Recognizing problem areas and implementing solutions Selecting critical information from masses of data

Understanding of business uses of technology


Understanding of organizations business Page 11 model

Communication Skills
Ability to transform ideas into words and actions Credibility among colleagues, peers, and subordinates

Listening and asking questions


Presentation skills; spoken format

Presentation skills; written and/or graphic formats


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Effectiveness Skills
Contributing to corporate mission/departmental objectives Customer focus Multitasking: working at multiple tasks in parallel Negotiating skills Project management Reviewing operations and implementing improvements
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Effectiveness Skills (contd)


Setting and maintaining performance standards internally and externally Setting priorities for attention and activity Time management

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Interpersonal Skills
Coaching and mentoring skills

Diversity skills: working with diverse people and cultures


Networking within the organization Networking outside the organization Working in teams; cooperation and commitment

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Role of Managers
Interpersonal Roles

Informational Roles

DecisionMaking Roles
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Interpersonal Roles
They are the roles in which managers main task is to relate to other people in certain ways.

Figurehead Role
The manager is a symbol and represents the organization in matters of formality.

Leader Role
The managers to hire, train and motivate employees.

Liaison Role
Contacting external sources in context of organizational objectives.

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Informational Roles
These involve some aspect of information processing.
Monitor
Seeks information that might be of value to the organization.

Disseminator
The manager transmits this information to others.

Spokesperson
The manager is a formal authority in transmitting information to people outside the unit.

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Decision- Making Roles


Entrepreneur
Voluntarily initiates change, such as innovations in the organization.

Disturbance Handler
Helps settle disputes between various parties.

Resource Allocator
Decides who will get whathow resources in the organization will be distributed among various individuals and groups.

Negotiator
Represents the organization in reaching agreements with other organizations, such as contracts between management and labor unions.

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The Work of a Manager- The Environmental Setting


EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Nature of the Structure organization Technology THE Activities & & Methods MANAGER Tasks

People

Level in the Organization INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

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