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Basic Grammar and conversation

Aat Eska Fahmadi

Parts of speech
Kinds of part of speech o Noun o Pronoun o Verb o Adjective o Adverb o Preposition o Conjunction o interjection

1.Noun
Noun : is a word used as the name of anything-a person,an animal, an object, a situation , a quality or an idea. Example: o Take your book, please! o Rizky is listening to the radio. o They saw tiger in the zoo o I met a man yesterday o Jakarta is the capital city of indonesia.

2. verb
Verb is a word that tells of an action or state of being and the time of when it si Example o Alfian studies grammar o We are walking to school o The rain drenched us o Starts appear at night o They look tired

Transitive and intransitive verb


Aktif transitif : Kalimat aktif yang predikatnya (P) membutuhkan obyek (O) Aktif intransitif : Kalimat aktif intransitif adalah kalimat yang predikatnya (P) tidak membutuhkan obyek (O)

Transitive verb I read news paper He drinks water You take my book I kicked the ball I write the letter

intransitive verb I travel to bali Ali goes to school You will sleep She runs I cried last night

Reguler and irregular verb


Reguler irregular verb

Study studied studied Play played played Work worked worked Walk walked walked

Sleep slept slept See saw seen Think thought thought Teach tought - tought

Action and lingking verb


Action verb lingking verb

Betty looked at the melon Budy felt the melon Peter grows tomatoes Ari smells the dirt

The melon looked ripe The night grew cold The boy seems/feels/looks happy The man appears/becomes the leader The food looks/tastes/smells good another lingking verb are: get, sound

How to read past participle in regular verb


1. Past morpheme will be pronounced T when its last word ended with voiceless consonants. Ex. Walked, passed,stopped,called, locked, killed, helped,discussed, talked, jumped, kicked,dropped,shoped,advised, wiped, smoked,reached,pulled,worked,washed, lighted, fixed, settled.knocked,fainted,glowed 2. Past morpheme will be pronounced D when its last word ended with voiced consonants. Ex. Played, combed, robbed, claimbed,

3. Past morpheme will be pronounced ID when its last wore are T and D in consonants. Ex: waited, avoided, pointed, visited, limited, wanted, painted,added,updated admitted, edited, formated, dissapointed started, imported, complicated,accepted,broadcasted,blen ded, folded,snaped,aquainted,affronted,lifted, directed tc.

3. Adjective
An adjective is a word used to qualify a noun or pronoun Comparisson degree
Positive
High Short Small Great Weak Clever Narrow Bitter Happy Heavy Expensive Important valuable

comparative
Higher Shorter Smaller greater Weaker Cleverer/more clever Narrower/more narrow Bitterer/more bitter Happier Havier More expensive More important More valuable

superlative
Highest Shortest smallest Greatest Weakest Cleverest/most clever Narrowest/most clever Bitterest/most bitter Happiest Heaviest Most expensive Most important Most valuable

4. Pronoun
A Pronoun is a word used as a subtitute for a noun. It is divided into some kinds: a. Personal pronoun b. Possessive pronoun c. Possessive adjective d. Reflexive pronoun e. Relative pronoun f. Indefinite pronoun

Personal pronoun subject I You We They He She It object Me You us them him her It

Possessive pronoun Mine Yours ours theirs his hers its

Possessiv e adjective My Your Our Their His Her its

Reflexife pronoun Myself Yourself Ourselves Themselves Himself Herself itself

Relative pronoun Who Which That Whom whose

The example of relative pronoun in a sentence


I like the person who is diligent We saw film which was very amusing Something that i dont like is to lie This is the person whom i talked to you about him We comforted the women whose savings was lost in fire

Indifinite
Indefinite pronouns are pronouns which refer very generally to persons or things
Indifinite pronoun of persons and things Someone Somebody Something Anyone Anything No one Nobody Nothing Everyone Everybody etc Indifinite pronoun of quantitiy A lot of All Another Any Both Each Either More Most Much etc

5. Adverb
An Adverb is a word, which modivies a verb, an adjective or another adverb, it could used also to tell time (when), place(where) ,reason(why),manner(how),degree(how much),to what extent and frequency(how often) Example a. They will leave soon (time) b. He will wait here (place) c. Therefore he was punished (why) d. The boys played well (manner) e. They were quite satisfied (degree) f. She is always late (frequency)

Forming adverb
Many adverb are formed from adjectives, with the addition of the suffixly
adjective Busy Great Happy Quiet Slow Soft Brave Accurete Gradual Expert Attentive Generous Impatient quick adverb Busily Greatly Happily Quietly Slowly Softly Bravely Accuretely Gradually Expertly Attentively Generously Impatiently quickly

6. Prepositions
A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to show its reletionship to some other words in a sentence Examples: o The children played behind the house o We are leaving on Sunday o We shall meet at three oclock Here is a list of some of the more common prepositions: of ,in, on, up, at, to, into, for, with, by, from, till, after, before, near, against, across, behind, below, beneath, above, over, about, between, through, under, inside, around, outside, upon.

7. Conjunctions
Conjunctions are words used to connect one word to another word or one sentence to another sentence Three kinds of conjuntions a. Coordinating conjunctions b. Subordinating conjunctions c. Correlatives conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions is conjunctions
o o o o which join words or groups of words of equal importance Example He teaches physics and math in this school He is tired and wants to rest He is intelligent but lazy You must hurry up or you will left behind

Subordinating conjunctions
Subordinating conjunctions is conjunctions that join one important element to another of lesser importance Example o He is tired because he has been working hard o You will succeed if you are diligent The most comon Subordinating conjunctions are : becouse, if, since, when ,where,although, as, as if, unless, that, before, after

Correlatives conjunctions
Correlatives conjunctions are ussually used on pairs, they include: both....and, either ....or, neither...nor, not only...but also o o o Example Both marry and john are students in this school. Neither he nor his brother is trustworthy You must either contribute some useful idea or keep quiet o He is not only stubborn but also lazy

8. Interjection
An Interjection is an exclamatory word or phrase to express a sudden feeling of mind or emotion Example : o Oh my god, protect me! o Bah, he isnt actor o Well you must go now! o Uh, dont think over this problem too seriously o Oh look at the time! o Hurrah! We have won! o Alas! He realized his folly too late

Verb tense overview with examples


Tense Simple I study English everday Continuoes I am studying English now Perfect I have studied english in some countries I had studied English before i moved to the U.S I will have studied english by the time i finish this course I should have studied this lesson yesterday Perfect Continuous I have been studying English for five years I had been studying English for five years before i moved to U.S I will have been studying english for two hours by the time u arrive I should have been studying English for 6 months, last month

Present

Past

Two years ago, i I was studying studied English in english When England you called yesterday I will help you study English. I am going to study english next year. Marry said that she would study at unissula the next day I will be studying English when you arrive tonight He would be studying at 10 this morning

Future

Past future

The simple present tense


Usage : it is used to describe habitual actions or those, which take place fairly regularly, it is often used with adverbs such as: always, never, occasionally, often, sometimes, usually, everyday, etc
Afirmative: Subject + verb 1 form -( i- you-we- they) work everday -(he- she it) works everday

Negative : -( i-you-we- they)do not work everyday Subject +do/does not + verb 1 form -(he- she it) does not work everyday Interrogative : Do/Does +Subject +Verb 1 form Negative introgative: do/does +subject+ verb 1 form Do ( i-you-we- they) work everyday ? Does (he- she it) work everyday ? - Do+not( i-you-we- they) work ? -does+not (he- she it) work ?

The present continuous tense


Usage : it is used to express an action or event ,which is taking place at the present moment.
Afirmative: Subject + is am are + verb-ing Negative : Subject + is am are + not+ verb-ing Interrogative : Is am are +Subject +Verb-ing Negative introgative: Is am are+not +subject+ verb-ing they are working

They are not working

Are they working ?

Are not they working ?

The present perfect tense


Usage: it is used to refer to an action or event that began some time in the past and the result or the impact can still be felt until now
Afirmative: Subject + has/have+ verb3 We have known him since 1990 (meaning : we got to know him in 1990 and we still know him)

Negative : Subject +has/have+ not+ verb 3

We have not known him He has not eaten all apples

Interrogative : Has/have +Subject +Verb 3

Have we known him?

Negative introgative: Has/have +not+subject+ verb3

Have not we know him?

The present perfect continuous tense


Usage: it is describes an action that began in the past and has continued up to the present
Afirmative: Subject +has/have+ been+verb-ing I have been waiting

Negative : Subject +has/have+ not+been+verbing Interrogative : Has/have +Subject +been+verb-ing

I have not been waiting

Have you been waiting

Negative introgative: Has/have +not+subject+ been+verbing

Have not you been waiting

The simple past tense


Usage : it is used to describe an action that took place in the past and already finish.
Afirmative: Subject + verb 2 form Nominal sentence: she was a teacher in 1957. Verbal sentence :i ate rice last night Nominal sentence: she wasnt a teacher in 1957. Verbal sentence :i did not eat rice last night Nominal sentence: was she a teacher in 1957? Verbal sentence: Did you eat last night

Negative : Subject +did + not+verb 1

Interrogative : Did +Subject +Verb 1

Negative introgative: did/ +not+subject+ verb 1 form Did not you eat last night?

The past continuous tense


Usage : it is used to describe that somebody was in the middle of doing something at the certain time in the past
Afirmative: Subject + was/were + verb-ing Negative : Subject + was/were + not+ verb-ing Interrogative : Was/were +Subject +Verb-ing Negative introgative: Was/were+not +subject+ verb-ing last year, i was living in australia

last year, i was not living in australia

Were you living in australia last year?

Were not you living in australia last year?

The past simple and the past continuous are often used togather to say that samething happened in the middle of something else Example:

A. Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking the dinner B. I saw you in the park yesterday, you were sitting on the grass and reading the book. C. While i was in the garden, i hurt my back.

The past perfect tense


The past perfect tense is used to describe an action that took place in the past before another past action
Affirmative: Subject + had + verb3

i had carried a bag of gold

Negative : Subject +had+ not+ verb 3


Interrogative : Had +Subject +Verb 3 Negative introgative: Had+not+subject+ verb3

i had not carried a bag of gold

Had you carried a bag of gold? Had not you carried a bag of gold?

Using the past perfect and the present perfect


Present perfect Have done Past Who is the woman? I have never seen her before Now Past perfect Had done past now future

I didnt know who she was, I had never seen her before

We are not hungry. We have just had lunch

We were not hungry, We had just had lunch

The house is dirty, They have not cleaned it for weeks

The house was dirty, They had not cleaned it fo weeks

The past perfect continuous tense


Usage: it is used to express an action which began at a certain time in the past and was still continuing or had just finished at another point of time in the past.
Afirmative: Subject + had+been+ verb-ing Negative : Subject +had+ not+been+verb-ing I had been living in this little city for ten years before i moved to malang,east java I had not been living in this little city for ten years before i moved to malang,east java

Interrogative : had +Subject +been+Verb-ing


Negative introgative: Had+not+subject+been+ verb+ing

Had you been living .......?

Had not you been living.....?

Another Example
James had been working at the pluit hospital for fifteen years(james telah sedang bekerja dirumah sakit pluit selama 15 tahun) before he died(sebelum dia mninggal) Thomas had been traveling to west kalimantan for a week before she went back to jakarta( thomas telah sedang bepergian ke kalimantan barat selama seminggu sebelum dia kembali kejakarta)

The future tense


Usage: it is used to describe an actions that will happen in the future
Afirmative: Subject + will+ verb 1 form Negative : Subject +will+ not + verb 1 form Introgative : will +Subject +Verb 1 form Negative introgative: will +subject+ verb 1 form i will sing a song

i will not sing a song

Will you sing a song ?

Will not you sing a song?

The future continuous tense


Usage : it is used to describe that somebody is in the middle of doing something at the certain time in the future
Afirmative: Subject + will+be + verb-ing Negative : Subject + will + not+ verb-ing Interrogative : Will+Subject+ be +Verb-ing Negative introgative: Will +not+be +subject+ verb-ing He will be studying tomorrow

He will not be studying tomorrow

will he be studying tomorrow?

will not he be studying tomorrow?

The future perfect tense


Usage : it refers to an action, which will have been completed at a particular point of time in the future. It is always used with a time expression.
Afirmative: Subject + will/shall+have+ verb3 He will have graduated from Unissula by the end of this year

Negative : He will not have graduated from Subject +will/shall+not+have+ verb Unissula by the end of this year 3 Interrogative : Will/shall+have +Subject +Verb 3 Negative introgative: will/shall+not+have +subject+ verb3 will he have graduated from Unissula by the end of this year

Will not he have graduated ,,,,,?

Another Example
I will have passed my examination by the end of this month. Lucia will have got merried to robbin by june. A mechanic will have checked the enggine before the pilot flies the plane.

The future perfect continuous tense


Usage: it is used to describe an action that is happening before another action in the future
Afirmative: Subject + will+have+been+ verbing Negative : Subject +will+not+have+been+verbing I will have been sleeping for two hours at that time before my wife gets home I will not have been sleeping for two hours at that time before my wife gets home

Interrogative : Will you have been sleeping.........? Will+ Subject +have+been +Verb-ing Negative introgative: Will +not+have+been+subject+ verb+ing Will not you have been sleeping.....?

Another example
The firefighters will have been fighting against the fire for five hours by seven oclock My child will have been playing for three hours by the time i get home. Mr. Black will have been teaching here for fifteen years at that time

Passive voice overview with example


Tense Subject To be (Auxiliary) Singuler Present Present perfect past Past perfect future The car/cars The car/cars The car/cars The car/cars The car/cars Is Has been was Had been Will be Are Have been were Had been Will be Plural designed designed designed designed designed Past particle

Future perfect
Present continuous Past continuous

The car/cars
The car/cars The car/cars

Will have been


Is being Was being

Will have been


Are being Were being

designed
designed designed

Passive voice
Usage: it shows that the subject is receiving the action of the verb
(a) Active : Ali mails the package. (b) passive : the package is mailed by Ali (c) Ali s mails v the package. o (a) And (b) have the same meaning

In (c) the object of an active sentence becomes the subject of a passive sentence

The package is mailed by Ali s v by-phrase (d) Ali s mails v the package. o (d) The subject of an active sentence is the subject of by in theby-phrase in passive sentence

The package is mailed by Ali s v by-phrase

Tense forms of passive voice


(Simple present,Past,Present perfect and Future)
Be + past pasrticiple TENSE Simple present ACTIVE The news surprises me The news surprises sam The news surprises us The news surprised me The news surprised us PASSIVE I am surprised by the news Sam is surprised by the news We are surprised by the news I was surprised by the news We ware surprised by the news The letter has been mailed by ali The letters have been mailed by me The letter will be mailed by ali The letter is going to be mailed by ali

Simpe past

Present perfect

Ali has mailed the letter i have mailed the letter

Future

Ali will mail the letter Ali is going to mail the letter

Passive Modal Auxiliaries


Modal auxiliaries are often used in the passive. Form: Modal +Be+Past participle
Active Modal Auxiliaries Budi will mail it Budi can mail it Budi could mail it Budi should mail it Budi ought to mail it Budi must mail it Budi has to mail it Budi may mail it Budi might mail it Passive Modal Auxiliaries (Modal +Be+Past participle) It will be mailed by budi It can be mailed by budi It could bemailed by budi It should be mailed by budi It ought to be mailed by budi It must be mailed by budi It has to be mailed by budi It may be mailed by budi It might be mailed by budi

Wh+how questions
Question words Meaning Examples

Who
Where Why

Person
Place Reason

Whos that?
Where do you live? Why do you sleep early?

When
How What

Time
Manner Object, action

When do you go to work?


How do you go? What do yo do

Which
Whose Whom What kind What time How many How much

Choice
Possession Object of verb Description Time Quantity(coun table) Amount,price (uncountable)

Which one do you prefer?


Whose is this book? Whom did you meet? What kind of music do you like? What time did you come home? How many students are there? How much did you buy the sugar?

Wh+how questions
Question word How long How often How far How old How come Meaning Duration,length Frequency Distance Age Reason Examples How long did you stay in the hotel? How often do you go to the gym How far is your school ? How old are you? How come i didnt see you at the party

The rules of some and any


Some : Espeacially used in affirmative sentence, some is used for both countable and uncountable noun. Examples: I have some friends I would like some water Would you like some bread?(offer) Can i have some water,please?(request)

Any : Espeacially used in negative sentence, any is used for both countable and uncountable noun Example I dont have any friends He has not any cheese Have you got any idea? Do you have any keys?

The rules of much,many, a lot


Much :it is used for uncountable noun. Example: I have much money We need much water Many : it is used for countable noun. Example: There are many students She has many friends

A lot of : it might be used both countable or uncaountable noun. Example: There are a lot of books There are lots of books Ive gotten a lot of money Ive gotten lots of money

The rules of little and a few


Little : it is used for uncountable noun. Example: i have gotten little money A few: it is used for countable noun Example : i have gotten a few friends

Writing Exercise
Make your own recount text related with your past experiance about holidays Consider these following instrutions: 1. Attend to the generic structure (orientation, event, re-orientation). 2. Use the passive voice,at least 3. 3. include the kinds of part of speech. 4. The text no exceed than 150 words

gerund
Gerund is a form of verb that functions as noun and ends in ing. 1. As the Subject : Whwn an action is being considered in a general sense. Example : a. Reading French is easier than speaking it. b. Swimming is good sport. 2. as the object of verbs Example:

2. As the object of verbs Example: a. He admitted stealing the money. b. She advised waiting until tommorow. c. He avoided answering my question. d. He quits smoking

3. in short prohibition Example: A. No smoking B. No parkinng 4. after preposition a. We use this pot for brewing herb tae b. What can you do beside typing? c. After swimming, i felt cold d. He coached them in swimming

e. What about leaving it her and collecting it letar? f. Touch you toes without bending your knees.