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CONFLICTS IN ORGANISATIONS

CONFLICT
According to Robbins

Conflict is a process in which an effort is purposefully made by one person or unit to block another that results in frustrating the attainment of the others goals or furthering of own interests.
EFFORTS PURPOSEFULLY MADE
To block other

Further your own interests /Achieve own goals Not letting other people attain their goal

CONFLICT

Individual

Unit / Group EFFORTS MADE PURPOSEFULLY AGAINST OTHERS

Dont let others attain their goals

Want to further your interests /achieve your goals

THE EFFECT OF CONFLICT ON ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE

THE CONFLICT PROCESS


Stage 1 Potential Opposition

Stage 2 Cognition & Personalisation


PERCEIVED CONFLICT

Stage 3 Behaviour

Stage 4 Outcomes INCREASED GROUP PERFORMANCE

ANTECEDENT CONDITIONS Communication Structure Personal variables

OVERT CONFLICT

FELT CONFLICT

DECREASED GROUP PERFORMANCE

CONFLICT HANDLING STYLES Competition Collaboration Accommodation Avoidance Compromise

SOURCES OF CONFLICT
Goal incompatibility. Different values and beliefs. Task interdependence. Scarce resources. Ambiguity in rules and regulations. Communication problems in the organisation. Change in the Organisation.

LEVELS OF TASK INTERDEPENDENCE Pooled, Sequential, Reciprocal


RESOURCES

1.

Employee1

Employee 2

Employee 3

2.

Employee1 (Output)

I/P

Employee 2 (Output)

I/P

Employee 3

Employee1 3 Employee 4 Employee 3 Employee 2

LEVELS/ TYPES OF CONFLICT


There are 4 levels of conflicts in the organisations: 1. Intra-individual conflict. 2. Inter-individual conflict. 3. Intra-group conflict. 4. Inter-group conflict.

LEVELS/ TYPES OF CONFLICT


INTRA-INDIVIDUAL CONFLICT This refers to conflict within an individual. Also called Intrapersonal conflict. This can be because of Role conflict (Different role expectations) Role ambiguity (lack of clarity over how to act)

LEVELS/ TYPES OF CONFLICT


INTER-PERSONAL CONFLICT Such type of conflicts occur between two individuals in an organisation. It arises mainly because of differences in perception, temperaments, personalities, value systems etc.

LEVELS/ TYPES OF CONFLICT


INTRA-GROUP CONFLICT This type of conflict refers to disputes among some or all of the members of the group. Visualised more when people come from different backgrounds. Family run businesses are more prone to intra-group conflicts. Such types of conflicts usually ariseWhen new values are imported from the social environment to the group. When a persons extra-group role comes into conflict with his intra-group role.

LEVELS OF CONFLICT
INTER-GROUP CONFLICT This type of conflict refers to conflicts between groups, departments, or sections in an organisation. Such types of conflicts are highly visible. Some reasons for such types of conflictsTask interdependence (Pooled, Reciprocal, Sequential) Task ambiguity (Lack of clarity) Goal incompatibility Competition for limited resources. Line and Staff conflict

OUTCOMES/ EFFECTS OF CONFLICT


Conflict is often viewed as destructive, but it can be constructive also. Conflict is functional (when conflict results in the improvement of group performance) Conflict is dysfunctional (when conflict hinders group performance)

OUTCOMES/ EFFECTS OF CONFLICT


What happens when conflict is destructive ? Dysfunctional conflicts hinders and prevents organisational goals from being achieved. Can lead to discontentment & distrust amongst people. (Negative climate in the organisation) Can lead to wastage of resources. Reduction in group cohesiveness. Actual work can take a backseat. In extreme cases, group functioning can come to a halt.

OUTCOMES/ EFFECTS OF CONFLICT


What happens when conflict is constructive ?

Functional conflicts are crucial for effective functioning of the organisations.


Quality of decisions improved. Stimulates creativity and innovation Provides a medium for airing problems and tensions released. Puts a break to groupthink. Improves productivity. Enhances morale and cohesion.

OUTCOMES/ EFFECTS OF CONFLICT


Example of a company that suffered because of too little functional conflicts

GM

1960s to 1990s (Problem Phase) Managers were yes boss types. Never questioned company actions. Believed what worked in the past. will work in future as well. Tendency was to avoid any kind of conflicts.

Proved disastrous for the organisation.

OUTCOMES/ EFFECTS OF CONFLICT


Example of a company that suffered because of too little functional conflicts
YAHOO! Begun in 1994. Best known brands (1999) 2001- Dotcom bubble, Company suffered a setback

REASONS ANALYSED

Too insulated and void of functional conflicts. Managers and staff didnt want to change status quo. Source of the problem (CEO)- Tim Koogle Was changed in 2001 and hence the fortunes of company also changed.

APPROACHES TO CONFLICT MANAGEMENT


1st Approach of Conflict Management 1. PRESSURE TACTICS: Use of force and pressure on the opposite party and making him perforce comply with your own terms and conditions. 2. EXCHANGE-ORIENTED TACTICS: Better and more peaceful way of solving a conflict. Both the parties are ready to make concessions and reach to some solution.

APPROACHES TO CONFLICT MANAGEMENT


2nd Approach of Conflict Management 1. BARGAINING: Each party tries to force the adversary into making maximum concessions and at the same time concedes very little. 2. NORM FOLLOWING: Both parties try to make rules and then follow them for solving the conflict.

MODEL OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (By ROBERT MADDUX)


HIGH DEGREE OF ASSERTIVENESS WIN/LOOSE PROBLEM SOLVING

COMPROMISE

LOW

AVOIDANCE LOW

ACCOMODATING HIGH

DEGREE OF CO-OPERATION

MODEL OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (By ROBERT MADDUX)


Robert Maddux developed a model matrix to explain 5 ways of managing conflicts. These are 1. Win- Loose or Competing style 2. Problem-solving or Collaborative style 3. Compromise Style 4. Avoidance Style 5. Accommodating Style

MODEL OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (By ROBERT MADDUX)


AVOIDANCE STYLE Degree of Assertiveness is low and degree of cooperation is also low. Can be best described as non-confrontational. A conflict doesnt get addressed at all. A Party passes over an issue or totally ignores the person with whom he is in conflict. This style is used when issue is not important to the parties.

MODEL OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (By ROBERT MADDUX)


AVOIDANCE STYLE ADVANTAGES 1. Gives some time to collect relevant information which can be used later on. 2. Attention can be paid to more important issues. DISADVANTAGES 1. Allows conflict to grow (Snowball effect). 2. Sets stage for a bigger explosion later on. 3. Keeps you away from the solution of the problem.

MODEL OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (By ROBERT MADDUX)


ACCOMODATING STYLE Degree of Assertiveness is low and degree of cooperation is high. Can be best described as giving in, perhaps because the relationship is more important than the conflict. The party co-operates even at the expense of personal goals.

MODEL OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (By ROBERT MADDUX)


ACCOMODATING STYLE ADVANTAGES 1. Advances harmonious relations between parties. 2. Earn goodwill for the party. DISADVANTAGES 1. Can lead to losses for oneself. 2. Lessens the power of the party giving in.

MODEL OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (By ROBERT MADDUX)


Degree of Assertiveness is high and degree of cooperation is low. Also known as Competitive style. Known as class conflict during which a person is confrontational, aggressive and wants to win at all costs. Needs of the other person totally disregarded.

WIN/LOOSE STYLE

MODEL OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (By ROBERT MADDUX)


WIN/LOOSE STYLE

ADVANTAGES 1. Decisions can be made quickly. 2. Demonstrates commitment and importance of the issue.

DISADVANTAGES 1. Can harm the relationships between two parties. 2. Parties may resort to wrong tricks to win.

MODEL OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (By ROBERT MADDUX)


Degree of Assertiveness is high and degree of cooperation is also high. Also known as Collaborating style. This style is used when both the parties have high respect for each other. Each party is also concerned about the needs of the other. So, they try to find a solution that will satisfy both of them.

PROBLEM-SOLVING STYLE

MODEL OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (By ROBERT MADDUX)


PROBLEM SOLVING STYLE

ADVANTAGES
1. Satisfies both parties. 2. Demonstrates good virtues like respect for each other. 3. Promotes the idea that conflicts can be productive. 1.

DISADVANTAGES
Can be time-consuming.

MODEL OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (By ROBERT MADDUX)

COMPROMISING STYLE
Degree of Assertiveness is medium and degree of co-operation is also medium. In this style, both parties give up something in order to gain something. Both the parties will only be partially satisfied.

MODEL OF CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (By ROBERT MADDUX)


COMPROMISING STYLE

ADVANTAGES
1. Conflict can be resolved quickly. 2. Can be seen as win-win situation for both parties. 3. Can be used as a last resort when other methods fail. 1.

DISADVANTAGES
Can be seen as a lossloss situation for both the parties.

TECHNIQUE OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION

NEGOTIATION
A process in which two or more parties attempt to reach an acceptable agreement in a situation characterised by some level of disagreement.

SITUATION OF DISAGREEMENT
PARTY 1 PARTY 2

TYPES OF NEGOTIATION
Distributive negotiation
Parties believe that resources are fixed and these have to be distributed. I win-you lose is the approach of parties. Primary interests of the parties are opposite. Focus of relationships is short term.

Integrative negotiation
Parties believe that resources are variable. Approach is to create a win-win situation for both parties. Primary interests of the party congruent with each other. Focus of relationships is long term.

CUDSA An interactive framework for managing conflicts

Confront the situation


situation

Understand each partys

Define the Problem


evaluate solutions

Search for and

Agree upon and implement


the best solution

CONFLICT
CONFLICTS ARE INEVITABLE IN THE ORGANISATIONS.
In the workplace, the challenge is to view conflict as an opportunity for growth and resolving differences, thereby enhancing morale, productivity and improving the work environment.