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Mobile Database Systems

Vijay Kumar Computer Sc. Telecommunications University of Missouri-Kansas City 5100 Rockhill Road Kansas City, MO 64110, USA kumar@cstp.umkc.edu

Mobile Database Systems


Outline

Fully Connected Information Space Personal Communication System (PCS) Mobile Database Systems (MDS) Transaction Management Data Caching Query Processing Data Classification Conclusion

Mobile Database Systems


Fully connected information space

Mobile Database Systems


Fully connected information space
Each node of the information space has some communication capability. Some node can process information. Some node channel. can communicate through voice

Some node can do both

Mobile Database Systems


Fully connected information space
Can be created and maintained by integrating legacy database systems, and wired and wireless systems (PCS, Cellular system, and GSM)

Mobile Database Systems


What is a Mobile Database System (MDS)?
A system with the following structural and functional properties

Distributed system with mobile connectivity Full database system capability Complete spatial mobility

Built on PCS/GSM platform


Wireless and wired communication capability

Mobile Database Systems


What is a mobile connectivity?
A mode in which a client or a server can establish communication with each other whenever needed. Intermittent connectivity is a special case of mobile connectivity.

Mobile Database Systems


What is intermittent connectivity?
A node in which only the client can establish communication whenever needed with the server but the server cannot do so.

Personal Communication System (PCS) Part 1


Architecture Wireless communication Bandwidth limitations Frequency reuse

Personal Communication System (PCS)


A system where wired and wireless networks are integrated for establishing communication.
PSTN AC HLR VLR EIR MS BS MS Wireless component MSC (MTSO) MSC (MTSO)

PSTN: Public Switched Network. MSC: Mobile Switching Center. Also called MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office). BS: Base Station. MS: Mobile Station. Also called MU (Mobile Unit) or Mobile Host (MH). HLR: Home Location Register. VLR: Visitor Location Register. EIR: Equipment Identify Register. AC: Access Chanel.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


PCS refers to variety of wireless access (communication) and personal mobility services provided through a small terminal at any place, and in any form. Business opportunities (E-commerce)

for such services are tremendous, since every person, every organization, etc., could be equipped. Several PCS systems have been developed to meet rapid growth prompted by market demand. Most of them are connected to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to integrate with the wired service.
Two of the most popular PCS systems are:

Cellular telephony Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Cellular telephony overview Four popular cellular telephony networks are:

Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Cellular telephony overview Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)
AMPS was the first cellular system, which was developed during the 1970s by Bell Lab. From 1974 to 1978, a large scale AMPS trial was conducted in Chicago. service has been available since 1983. frequency division multiple access Commercial AMPS It is based on AMP was (FDMA),

designed as a high capacity system based on a frequency

reuse scheme. A total of 50 MHz in the 824-849 MHz and 869894 MHz bands is allocated for AMPS.This spectrum is divided into 832 full-duplex channels using 1664 discrete frequencies, that is, 832 downlinks and 832 uplinks. In AMPS, the typical frequency reuse plan employs either a 12-group frequency

cluster using omnidirectional antennas or a 7-group cluster


using three sectors per base stations. Thus, there are about 50 channels per cell.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Cellular telephony overview Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)
GSM is a digital cellular system developed by Groupe Special Mobile of Conference Europeenne Institute des Postes et GSM Telecommunications (CEPT) and its successor European Telecommunications Standard (ETSI). combines time divisioin multiple access (TDMA) and FDMA. With TDMA, the radio hardware in the base station can be

shared among multiple users. In GSM the frequency carrier is


divided into eight time slots where the speech coding rate is 13 Kbps. In a GSM base station, every pair of radio transceiver-receiver supports eight voice channels, whereas an AMPS base station needs one such pair for every voice

channel. The GSM development process was similar to that of


AMPS, except that no large scale trial was conducted.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Cellular telephony overview EIA/TIA IS-136 Digital Cellular System
This system is also referred to as digital AMPS (DAMPS), American Digital Cellular (ADC), or North American TDMA (NA-TDMA), IS-136, the successor to IS-54, supports a TDMA air interface similar to that of GSM. IS-54 was renamed IS-136 when it reached revision C. It supports three voice channels, where the speech coding rate is 7.95 Kbps. IS-136 capacity is

around three times that of AMPS. An existing AMPS system


can be easily upgraded to IS-136 0n a circuit-by-circuit basis.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Cellular telephony overview EIA/TIA IS-95 Digital Cellular System
This digital cellular system was developed by Qualcomm, and has been operating in USA since 1996. IS-95 is based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. It allows many users to share a common frequency/time channel for transmission. The channel bandwidth used by IS-95 is 1.25 MHz, which has been extended to 5 MHz in the third

generation wideband CDMA proposal. The speech coding rate


for IS-95 is 13 Kbps or 8 Kbps. IS-95s capacity is estimated to be 10 times that of AMPS.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Cordless telephony technologies
Cordless Telephone, Second Generation (CT2)
Developed in Europe, and has been available since 1989. CT2 is allocated 40 FDMA channels with a 32-Kbps speech coding rate. For a user, both baseptop handset signals and handsetto-base signals are transmitted in the same frequency. The maximum transmit power of a CT2 handset is 10 mW. In the

call setup procedure, CT2 moves a call path from one radio
channel to another after three seconds of handshake failure. CT2 also supports data transmission rates of up to 2.4 Kbps through the speech code and up to 4.8 Kbps with an increased rate. CT2 does not support handoff and in a public

CT2 system, call delivery is not supported.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Cordless telephony technologies
Digital European Cordless Telephone (DECT)
The Digital European Cordless Telephone has been replaced by Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone to

denote global acceptance of DECT. DECT supports high user density with a picocell design. There are 12 voice channels per frequency carrier. Sleep mode is employed to converse handset power. DECT also supports seamless handoff. DECT is typically implemented as a wireless-PBX (Private Brach Exchange) connected to PSTN. DECT can interwork with GSM to allow user mobility.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Low-tier PCS telephony overview
Personal Handy Phone System (PHS)
PHS is a standard developed by the Research and

Development Center for Radio Systems (RCR), a private


standardization organization in Japan. PHS is a low-tier digital PCS system that offers telecommunication services for homes, offices, and outdoor environment, using radio access to the public telephone network or other digital networks.

PHS uses TDMA. Sleep mode enables PHS to support five


hours of talk time, or 150 hours of standby time. operates in the 1895-1918.1 MHz band. PHS The bandwidth is

partitioned into 77 channels, each with 300 KHz bandwidth. The band 1906.1-1918.1 MHz (40 channels) is designed for public systems, and the band 1895-1906.1 MHz (37 channels) is used for home/office applications.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Low-tier PCS telephony overview
Personal Access Communications Systems (PACS)
PACS is a low-power PCS system developed at Telcordia (formerly Bellcore). TDMA is used in PACS with eight voice channels per frequency carrier. In FDD mode, the PACS uplink and downlink utilizes different RF carriers, similar to cellular systems.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Cordless and low-tier PCS telephony overview
System Cell size User speed High-tier Cellular Large (0.4-22 mile) High ( 160 mph) Low-tier PCS Medium (30-300) Medium ( 60 mph) Medium. Micro and picocell Low Cordless Small (30-60) Low ( 30 mph)

Coverage area Handset complexity H-set power use


Speech coding rate Delay or latency

Large/Continuous macrocell High High (100-800 mW)


Low (8-13 Kbps) High ( 600 ms)

Small/Zonal, picocell Low Low (5-10 mW)


High (32 Kpbs) Low ( 20 ms)

Low (5-10 mW)


High (32 Kpbs) Low (10 ms)

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Wireless Components
Base Station (BS): A network element that interconnects the mobile station (or Mobile unit (MU)) to the network via the air interface. Each cell in the network has a BS associated with it. The primary function of a BS is to maintain the air interface, or medium, for communication to any mobile unit within its cell. Other functions of BS are call processing, signaling, maintenance, and diagnostics. The BS communicates to its mobile unit via the air interface, and to MTSO by dedicated communication link such as T1 trunks. Communication links on the BS to the MTSO interface are also classified into voice links and signaling link.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Wireless Components
Mobile Units (MU): Also called Mobile Systems (MS) or
Mobile Hosts (MH). It consists of three components: (a) transceiver, (b) antenna, and (c) user interface. The user interface exists only at MU, which consists of a display, a keypad for entering information, and an audio interface for speaking and hearing voice conversation. This can be a laptop, a palmtop, or a cell phone, or any other mobile device. A MU also stores (a) Mobile Identification Number (MIN), (b) Electronic Serial Number (EIN), and (C) Station Class Mark (SCM). These are transmitted upon power on, cell initiated sampling, and cell origination.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Wireless Components

MSC (MTSO)

BS MS MS Cell Wireless component

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Wireless channels are limited
Item Mobile Phones Europe (MHz) NMT: 453-457, 463-467 GSM: 890-915, 935-960, 1710-1785, 1805-1880 US (MHz) AMPS, TDMA, CDMA 824-849, 869-894 GSM, TDMA, CDMA Japan (MHz) PDC: 810-826 940-956, 1429-1465,

1850-1910, 1930-1990
Cordless CT1+: 885-887, 930-932 Phones CT2: 864-868 DECT: 1880-1900 PACS 1850-1910,1930-1990; PACS-UB: 1910-1930

1477-1513.
PHS 1895-1918; JCT: 254-380

NMT: Nordic Mobile Telephone PDC: Pacific Digital Cellular PACS: Personal Access Communications System PHS: Personal Handyphone System PACS-UB: PACS Unlicensed Band JCT: Japanese Cordless Telephone (Taken from Mobile Communications by Jochen Schiller)

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Limited channels must be utilized efficiently. It is done so by (a) Frequency reuse and (b) Mobile cell Frequency reuse
The goal of every mobile service provider is to manage as many simultaneous calls as possible. In USA each cellular provider is allocated 25 MHz of spectrum, 12.5 MHz for transmitting (downstream) and 12.5 MHz for receiving (upstream). Cellular system is duplex because transmitting and receiving are allocated their own frequencies. A person on a mobile call only needs the allocated frequency of the cell, thus there is no reason somebody else on the other end of the town cannot be using the same frequency in a different cell. The concept of multiple users using the same frequency at the same

time for communication is called frequency reuse.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Frequency reuse (continued)
For frequency reuse to work correctly it is imperative that each base station has just sufficient power to reach its cell boundary. If it puts out too much power, then it will not only reach the intended cell site, it will reach

unintended cell sites, which others may be using at the


same frequency for a totally different conversation. This limitation on transmitted power, however, is also an advantage because the cellular phones battery will last longer.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Mobile cell
Within (RSAs). the cellular allocation the USA is divided into Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Rural Statistical Areas There are six PCS service providers authorized to Within their provide mobile service in each of these areas.

geographical region, each service provider divides their area into smaller segments called cells. Each of this cell has a Base

Station. Ideally, the system has a large number of very small


hexagons (cell). The greater the number of hexagons, the more simultaneous calls the system can handle. However, larger number of hexagons increases the cost of implementation. Thus, cell coverage is a dynamic activity, which is constantly

changing in response to increases in demand.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Mobile cells
Metropolitan area Metropolitan area
BS

Base Station Coverage area in one cell

BS

BS

Coverage area in three cells


Large cells. Low density

Small cells. High density Smaller cells. Higher density

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Mobile cells
The entire coverage area is a group of a number of cells. The size of cell depends upon the power of the base stations.

MSC

PSTN

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Frequency reuse
A
2 7 1 6 5 4 3

2 7 1 6 5 4 3 D7 6 5
A A

2 3 1 4
A A A

D 3N R
D = distance between cells using the same frequency R = cell radius N = reuse pattern (the cluster size, which is 7). Thus, for a 7-cell group with cell radius R = 3 miles, the frequency reuse distance D is 13.74 miles.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Problems with cellular structure
How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Handoff How to maintain continuous communication between two parties in the presence of mobility? Solution: Roaming How to locate of a mobile unit in the entire coverage area? Solution: Location management

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Handoff
A process, which allows users to remain in touch, even while breaking the connection with one BS and establishing connection with another BS.
MSC MSC

Old BS

New BS Old BS

New BS

MSC

MSC

Old BS

New BS

Old BS

New BS

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Handoff

To keep the conversation going, the Handoff procedure should be completed while the MS (the bus) is in the overlap region.
Cell overlap region

Old BS

New BS

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Handoff issues

Handoff detection Channel assignment

Radio link transfer

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Handoff detection strategies

Mobile-Controlled handoff (MCHO) Network-Controlled handoff (NCHO) Mobile-Assisted handoff (MAHO)

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Mobile-Controlled Handoff (MCHO)

In this strategy, the MS continuously monitors the radio signal strength and quality of the surrounding BSs. When predefined criteria are met, then the MS checks for the best candidate BS for an available traffic channel and requests the handoff to occur. MACHO is used in DECT and PACS.

Personal Communication System (PCS)

Network-Controlled Handoff (NCHO)


In this strategy, the surrounding BSs, the MSC or both monitor the radio signal. When the signals strength and quality deteriorate below a predefined threshold, the network arranges for a handoff to another channel. NCHO is used in CT-2 Plus and AMPS.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Mobile-Assisted Handoff (MAHO)
It is a variant of NCHO strategy. In this strategy, the network directs the MS to measure the signal from the surrounding BSs and to report those measurements back to the network. The network then uses these measurements to determine where a handoff is required and to which channel. MACHO is used in GSM and IS-95 CDMA.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Handoff types with reference to the network

Intra-system handoff or Inter-BS handoff The new and the old BSs are connected to the same MSC.
MSC

Old BS

New BS

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Intra-system handoff or Inter-BS handoff
Steps
1.

The MU (MS) momentarily suspends conversation and initiates the handoff procedure by signaling on an idle (currently

free) channel in the new BS. Then it resumes the conversation on the old BS.
MSC

Old BS

New BS

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Intra-system handoff or Inter-BS handoff
2.

Upon receipt of the signal, the MSC transfers the encryption information to the selected idle channel of the new BS and sets up the new conversation path to the MS through that channel. The switch bridges the new path with the old path and informs the MS to transfer from the old channel to the new channel.

MSC

Old BS

New BS

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Intra-system handoff or Inter-BS handoff
3.

After the MS has been transferred to the new BS, it signals the network and resumes conversation using the new channel.

MSC

Old BS

New BS

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Intra-system handoff or Inter-BS handoff
4.

Upon the receipt of the handoff completion signal, the network removes the bridge from the path and releases resources associated with the old channel.

MSC

Old BS

New BS

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Handoff types with reference to the network

Intersystem handoff or Inter-MSC handoff The new and the old BSs are connected to different MSCs.

PSTN BS1 BS2 BS1 BS2

MSC A

Trunk

MSC B

MSC A

Trunk

MSC B

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Handoff types with reference to link transfer

Hard handoff The MS connects with only one BS at a time, and there is usually some interruption in the conversation during the link transition.

Soft handoff The two BSs are briefly simultaneously connected to the MU while crossing the cell boundary. As soon as the mobile's link with the new BS is acceptable, the initial BS disengages from the MU.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Handoff types with reference to link transfer
Hard handoff
1.

MU temporarily suspends the voice conversation by sending a link suspend message to the old BS.
MU sends a handoff request message through an idle time slot of the new BS to the network. The new BS sends a handoff ack message and marks the slot busy. The MU returns the old assigned channel by sending a link resume message to the old BS.

2.

3.

4.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Handoff types with reference to link transfer
Hard handoff
5.

MU continues voice communication while the network prepares for the handoff. Upon receipt of a handoff request message, the new BS sends a handoff ack message and reconfigures itself to effect the handoff. The MSC inserts a bridge into the conversation path and bridges the new BS. Finally, the network informs the MU to execute the handoff via both the new and old BSs by sending the handoff execute message.

6.

7.

8.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Handoff types with reference to link transfer
Hard handoff
9.

MU releases the old channel by sending an access release message to the old BS. it sends the network a handoff complete message through the new channel, and resumes the voice communication. The network removes the bridge from the path and frees up the resources associated with the old channel.

10. Once the MU has made the transfer to the new BS,

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Handoff types with reference to link transfer
Soft handoff
1.

MU sends a pilot strength measurement message to the old BS, indicating the new BS to be added. The old BS sends a handoff request message to the MSC. If the MSC accepts the handoff request, it sends a handoff request message to the new BS.

2.

3.

The BS sends a null traffic message to the MU to prepare the establishment of the communication link.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Handoff types with reference to link transfer
Soft handoff
4.

The new BS sends a join request message to the MSC. The MSC bridges the connection for the two BSs, so that the handoff can be processed without breaking the connection. The new BS sends a handoff ack message to the old BS via the MSC. The old BS instructs the MU to add a link to the new BS by exchanging the handoff command and handoff complete messages.

5.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Handoff types with reference to link transfer
Soft handoff
6.

The old BS and the MSC conclude this procedure by exchanging the required handoff information. The quality of the new link is guaranteed by the exchange of the pilot measurement request and the pilot strength measurement message pair between the MU and the new BS.

Personal Communication System (PCS) Roaming


Roaming is a facility, which allows a subscriber to enjoy uninterrupted communication from anywhere in the entire coverage space. A mobile network coverage space may be managed by a number of different service providers. They must cooperate with each other to provide roaming facility.

Roaming can be provided only if some administrative and technical constraints are met.

Personal Communication System (PCS) Roaming


Administrative constraints

Billing. Subscription agreement. Call transfer charges. User profile and database sharing. Any other policy constraints.

Personal Communication System (PCS) Roaming


Technical constraints

Bandwidth mismatch. For example, European 900MHz band may not be available in other parts of the world. This may preclude some mobile equipment for roaming.

Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. Needs some standard.
Mobile station constraints.

Personal Communication System (PCS) Roaming


Technical constraints

Integration of a new service provider into the network. A roaming subscriber must be able to detect this new provider. Service providers must be able to communicate with each other. Needs some standard. Quick MU response to a service providers availability. Limited battery life.

Personal Communication System (PCS) Roaming


Two basic operations in roaming management are Registration (Location update): The process of informing the presence or arrival of a MU to a cell. Location tracking: the process of locating the desired MU.

Personal Communication System (PCS) Roaming


Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.
Power-down registration. Done by the MU when it intends to switch itself off. Power-up registration. Opposite to power-down registration. When an MU is switched on, it registers.

Deregistration. A MU decides to acquire control channel service on a different type of network (public, private, or
residential).

Personal Communication System (PCS) Roaming


Registration (Location update): There are six different types of registration.
New system/Location area registration: when the location area of the MU changes, it sends a registration message. Periodic registration: A MU may be instructed to

periodically register with the network. Forced registration: A network may, under certain circumstances, force all MUs to register.

Personal Communication System (PCS) Registration


Two-Tier Scheme HLR: Home Location Register A HLR stores user geographical location. profile and the

VLR: Visitor Location Register A VLR stores user profile and the current location who is a visitor to a different cell that its home cell.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Registration
Two-Tier Scheme steps. MU1 moves to cell 2.
Cell 1 Cell 2

MU1 MU1

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Registration
Steps
1.

MU1 moves to cell 2. The MSC of cell 2 launches a registration query to its VLR 2.
VLR2 sends a registration message containing MUs identity (MIN), which can be translated to HLR address.

2.

3.

After registration, HLR sends an acknowledgment back to VLR2.


HLR sends a deregistration message to VLR1 (of cell 1) to delete the record of MU1 (obsolete). VLR1

4.

acknowledges the cancellation.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Location tracking
Steps
1. 2. 3.

VLR of cell 2 is searched for MU1s profile. If it is not found, then HLR is searched. Once the location of MU1 is found, then the information is sent to the base station of cell 1. Cell 1 establishes the communication.

4.

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Location tracking
Two-Tier Scheme steps location search
Id Dest LS Dest-ls Id MSS Dest Dest-mss Dest ls
7

Id HLS Dest Dest-HLS 3

Dest HLS
4 9 8 6

Source ls
2 10

Source-mss
1

Src

Dest

Personal Communication System (PCS)


Location tracking
Two-Tier Scheme steps location update
Id LS MU New-ls Id MSS MU New-mss New-ls
3 2 8 7

HLS
10 9 4 6

Old-ls Id HLS MU HLS -

New-mss
1

MU

Mobile Database Systems (MDS) Part 2


Architecture Data categorization

Data management
Transaction management Recovery

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


A Reference Architecture (Client-Server model)
PSTN DB DB HLR MSC BSC Fixed host Fixed host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR MSC BSC

DBS DBS

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Applications

Insurance companies Emergencies services (Police, medical, etc.) Traffic control Taxi dispatch E-commerce Etc.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Limitations

Limited wireless bandwidth Wireless communication speed Limited energy source (battery power) Less secured Vulnerable to physical activities

Hard to make theft proof.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS capabilities

Can physically move around without affecting data availability Can reach to the place data is stored Can process special types of data efficiently Not subjected to connection restrictions

Very high reachability


Highly portable

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


Objective
To build a truly ubiquitous information processing system by overcoming the inherent limitations of wireless architecture.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Issues

Data Management

Data Caching Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) Data Classification

Transaction Management

Query processing
Transaction processing Concurrency control

Database recovery

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Data Management Issues
How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth?

Possible schemes

Semantic data caching: The cache contents is decided by the results of earlier transactions or by semantic data set. Data Broadcast on wireless channels

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Data Management Issues
How to improve data availability to user queries using limited bandwidth?

Semantic caching

Client maintains a semantic description of the data in its cache instead of maintaining a list of pages or tuples. The server processes simple predicates on the database and the results are cached at the client.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Data Management Issues
Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) A set of most frequently accessed data is made available by continuously broadcasting it on some fixed radio frequency. Mobile Units can tune to this frequency and download the desired data from the broadcast to their local cache.

A broadcast (file on the air) is similar to a disk file but located on the air.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Data Management Issues
Data Broadcast (Broadcast disk) The contents of the broadcast reflects the data demands of mobile units. This can be achieved through data access history, which can be fed to the data broadcasting system. For efficient access the broadcast file use index or some other method.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Data Management Issues
How MDS looks at the database data? Data classification

Location Dependent Data (LDD)


Location Independent Data (LID)

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Data Management Issues
Location Dependent Data (LDD) The class of data whose value is functionally dependent on location. Thus, the value of the location determines the correct value of the data. Location Data value

Examples: City tax, City area, etc.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Data Management Issues
Location Independent Data (LID) The class of data whose value is functionally independent of location. Thus, the value of the location does not determine the value of the data. Example: Person name, account number, etc. The person name remains the same irrespective of place the person is residing at the time of enquiry.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Data Management Issues
Location Dependent Data (LDD) Example: Hotel Taj has many branches in India. However, the room rent of this hotel will depend upon the place it is located. Any change in the room rate of one branch would not affect any other branch. Schema: It remains the same only multiple correct values exists in the database.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Data Management Issues
Location Dependent Data (LDD)

LDD must be processed under the location constraints. Thus, the tax data of Pune can be processed correctly only under Punes finance rule. Needs location binding or location mapping function.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Data Management Issues
Location Dependent Data (LDD) Location binding or location mapping can be achieved through database schema or through a location mapping table.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Data Management Issues
Location Dependent Data (LDD) Distribution
MDS could be a federated or a multidatabase system. The database distribution (replication, partition, etc.) must take into consideration LDD. One approach is to represent a city in terms of a number of mobile cells, which is referred to as Data region. Thus, Pune can be represented in terms of N cells and the LDD of Pune can be replicated at these individual cells.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Data Management Issues
Concept Hierarchy in LDD
In a data region the entire LDD of that location can be represented in a hierarchical fashion.
City data

County 1 data

County 2 data

County n data

Subdivision 1 data

Subdivision data

Subdivision m data

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Query processing
Query types

Location dependent query Location aware query

Location independent query

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Query processing
Location dependent query A query whose result depends on the geographical location of the origin of the query. Example What is the distance of Pune railway station from here? The result of this query is correct only for here.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Query processing
Location dependent query

Situation: Person traveling in the car desires to know his progress and continuously asks the same question. However, every time the answer is different but correct. Requirements: Continuous monitoring of the longitude and latitude of the origin of the query. GPS can do this.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Transaction properties: ACID Consistency, Isolation, and Durability). (Atomicity,

Too rigid for MDS. Flexibility can be introduced using workflow concept. Thus, a part of the transaction can be executed and committed independent to its other parts.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Transaction fragments for distribution.
PSTN DB DBS DB DBS HLR MSC BSC Fixed host Fixed host BS MU MU MU BS MU BS MU VLR MSC BSC

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Transaction fragments for distributed execution

Execution scenario: User issues transactions from his/her MU and the final results comes back to the same MU. The user transaction may not be completely executed at the MU so it is fragmented and distributed among database servers for execution. This creates a Distributed mobile execution.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
A mobile transaction (MT) can be defined as

Ti is a triple <F, L, FLM>; where F = {e1, e2, , en} is a set of execution fragments, L = {l1, l2, , ln} is a set of locations, and FLM = {flm1, flm2, , flmn} is a set of fragment location mapping where j, flmi (ei) = li

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
An execution fragment eij is a partial order eij = {j, j} where

i = OSj {Ni} where OSj = kOjk, Ojk {read, write},


and Nj {AbortL, CommitL}. For any Ojk and Ojl where Ojk = R(x) and Ojl = W(x) for data object x, then either Ojk j Ojl or Ojl j Ojk.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Mobile Transaction Models Kangaroo Transaction: It is requested at a MU but processed at DBMS on the fixed network. The management of the transaction moves with MU. Each transaction is divided into subtransactions. Two types of processing modes are allowed, one ensuring overall atomicity by requiring compensating transactions at the subtransaction level.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Mobile Transaction Models Reporting and Co-Transactions: The parent transaction (workflow) is represented in terms of reporting and co-transactions which can execute anywhere. A reporting transaction can share its partial results with the parent transaction anytime and can commit independently. A co-transaction is a special class of reporting transaction, which can be forced to wait by other transaction.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Mobile Transaction Models

Clustering: A mobile transaction is decomposed into a set of weak and strict transactions. The decomposition is done based on the consistency requirement. The read and write operations are also classified as weak and strict.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Mobile Transaction Models

Semantics Based: The model assumes a mobile transaction to be a long lived task and splits large and complex objects into smaller manageable fragments. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. If the fragments can be recombined in any order then the objects are termed reorderable objects.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Mobile Transaction execution.
DBS1 DBS2

T2(e4, e5)

MU1

T1(e1, e2, e3)


MU2 DBS4 DBS3

MU3

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Serialization of concurrent execution.

Two-phase locking based (commonly used) Timestamping

Optimistic Wired and wireless message overhead.


Hard to efficiently support disconnected operations. Hard to manage locking and unlocking operations.

Reasons these methods may not work satisfactorily

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Serialization of concurrent execution.
New schemes based on timeout, multiversion, etc., may work. A scheme, which uses minimum number of messages, especially wireless messages is required.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Database update to maintain global consistency.

Database update problem arises when mobile units are also allowed to modify the database. To maintain global consistency an efficient database update scheme is necessary.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Transaction commit.

In MDS a transaction may be fragmented and may run at more than one nodes (MU and DBSs). An efficient commit protocol is necessary. 2-phase commit (2PC) or 3-phase commit (3PC) is no good because of their generous messaging requirement. A scheme which uses very few messages, especially wireless, is desirable.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Transaction commit. One possible protocol. scheme is timeout based

Concept: MU and DBSs guarantee to complete the execution of their fragments of a mobile transaction within their predefined timeouts. Thus, during processing no communication is required. At the end of timeout, each node commit their fragment independently.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Transaction commit.

Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout

Requirements
Coordinator: Coordinates transaction commit Home MU: Mobile Transaction (MT) originates here Commit set: Nodes that process MT (MU + DBSs) Timeout: Time period for executing a fragment

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Protocol: TCOT-Transaction Commit On Timeout

MT arrives at Home MU. MU extract its fragment, estimates timeout, and send rest of MT to the coordinator. Coordinator further fragments the MT and distributes them to members of commit set. MU processes and commits its fragment and sends the updates to the coordinator for DBS. DBSs process their fragments and inform the coordinator. Coordinators commits or aborts MT.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Transaction and database recovery.

Complex for the following reasons


Some of the processing nodes are mobile Less resilient to physical use/abuse Limited wireless channels Limited power supply Disconnected processing capability

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Transaction and database recovery.

Desirable recovery features

Independent recovery capability

Efficient logging and checkpointing facility


Log duplication facility

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Transaction and database recovery.

Independent recovery capability reduces communication overhead. Thus, MUs can recover without any help from DBS Efficient logging and checkpointing facility conserve battery power Log duplication facility improves reliability of recovery scheme

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Transaction and database recovery.

Possible approaches

Partial recovery capability

Use of mobile agent technology

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


MDS Transaction Management
Transaction and database recovery.

Possible MU logging approaches

Logging at the processing node (e.g., MU)

Logging at a centralized location (e.g., at a designated DBS)


Logging at the place of registration (e.g., BS) Saving log on Zip drive or floppies.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


Mobile Agent Technology
A mobile agent is an independent software module capable of

Migrating to any node on the network

Capable of spawning and eliminating itself


Capable of recording its own history

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


Mobile Agent Technology
A mobile agent can be used for the following activities, which are essential for recovery.

Centralized and distributed logging

Log carrier. A Mobile unit may need to carry its log with it for independent recovery
Log processing for database recovery Transaction commit or abort

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


Mobile Agent Technology
Possible approaches

Agent broadcast on a dedicated wireless channel


Pool of agents at every processing node Agent migration to a required node.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


Mobile E-commerce
What is E-commerce?

Mapping of business activity on the network. The network may be mobile of ad-hoc in which case the scope of business activities significantly increases.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


Mobile E-commerce
Why mobile E-commerce?

To make business activity free from spatial constraints. This allows tremendous flexibility to customers as well as to vendors.

Important gain: Making information available at the right time, at the right location, and in a right format.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


Mobile E-commerce
Requirements for a mobile E-system

Security
Reliability Efficient Customer trust Quality of service

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


Mobile E-commerce
These requirements are difficulty and complex to achieve Security Conventional revision. Reliability Hard to provide mainly because of the unreliability and limitations of resources. key approaches needs

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


Mobile E-commerce
These requirements are difficulty and complex to achieve Efficient This capability can be easily improved mainly because of the elimination of spatial constraints. Customer trust A time consuming activity. Customer do not easily trust electronic communication and always wants to see a reliable backup service.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


Mobile E-commerce
These requirements are difficulty and complex to achieve Quality of service

Mobility and web provides ample scope for improving the quality of service. An integration of mobility, web, data warehousing and workflow offers tremendous growth potential and a very controlled way of managing business activities.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


Conclusions and summary
Wireless network is becoming a commonly used communication platform. It provides a cheaper way to get connected and in some cases this is the only way to reach people. However, it has a number of easy and difficult problems and they must be solved before MDS can be built. This tutorial discussed some of these problems and identified a number of possible approaches.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


Conclusions and summary
The emerging trend is to make all service providing disciplines, such as web, E-commerce, workflow systems, etc., fully mobile so that any service can be provided from any place. Customer can surf the information space from any location at any time and do their shopping, make flight reservation, open bank account, attend lectures, and so on. This is what the wireless technology driving us to.

Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


References
1.

Acharya, S., Alonso, R., Franklin, M., and Zdonik, S. Broadcast Disks: Data management for Asymmetric Communication Environments. Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf., San Jose, May, 1995. Alonso, R., and Korth, H. Database Systems Issues in Nomadic Computing. Proc. ACM SIGMOD International Conf. on management of Data, May 1993.

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Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


References
3.

Barbara, D., and Imielinski, T. Sleepers and Workaholics: Caching Strategies in Mobile Environments. Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf., Minneapolis, May, 1994. Chrysanthis, P. K., Transaction Processing in Mobile Computing Environment, in IEEE Workshop on Advances in Parallel and Distributed Systems, October 1993.

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Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


References
5.

Dhawan, C. 1997.

Mobile Computing.

McGraw-Hill,

6.

Dunham, M. H., Helal, A., and Balakrishnan, S., A Mobile Transaction Model That Captures Both the Data and Movement Behavior, ACM/Baltzer Journal on Special Topics in Mobile Networks and Applications, 1997. Forman, H. George and Zahorjan, J. Challenges of Mobile Computing, Computers, Vol. 27, No. 4, April 1994. The IEEE

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Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


References
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Pitoura, E. and Bhargava, B., Maintaining Consistency of Data in Mobile Distributed Environments. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems., 1995. Pitoura, E. and Bhargava, B., Building Information Systems for Mobile Environments, Proc. 3rd. Int. conf. on Information and Knowledge Management, Washington, DC, No. 1994.

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Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


References
10.

Vijay Kumar, Timeout-based Mobile Transaction Commit Protocol, 2000 ADBISDASFAA Symposium on Advances in Databases and Information Systems, Prague, Sep. 5-8, 2000. Shaul Dar, Michael Franklin, Bjorn T. Johnsson, Divesh Srivastava, and Michael Tan, Semantic Data Caching and Replacement, Proc. Of the 22nd VLDB Conference, Mumbai, India, 1996.

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Mobile Database Systems (MDS)


References
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E. Pitoura and G. Samaras, Data Management for Mobile Computing, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998. E. Turban, at. el., Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective, Prentice Hall, 2000. L. Loeb, Secure Electronic Transactions, Artech House, 1998.

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