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Transmission lines

Microstrip:-

Microstrip is a type of electrical transmission line which can be fabricated using printed circuit board technology, and is used to convey microwave-frequency signals.

Microstrip

transmission lines consist of a conductive strip of width "W" and thickness "t" and a wider ground plane, separated by a dielectric layer of thickness "H" as shown in the figure below. Microstrip is by far the most popular microwave transmission line, especially for microwave integrated circuits.

Recent

development of microstip filter is driven by applications 1. Wireless communications 2. Wireless sensor/radar systems driven by topologies.. 1. high temperature superconducting 2.micromatching

The

choice of topology depends upon

1.Characteristics of filters,such as chebyshev or elliptic 2.Bandwidth 3.size

choice

of a The substrate depends on 1.size 2.higher order modes 3.Implementations couplings,line/spacing 4.Temperature stability

If

the substrate thickness h increases or if the conductor width w decreases fringing fields become more prominent and cannot be ignored in the mathematical model. The most precise expressions describing microstrip lines are derived by using conformal mapping. for the purpose of obtaining fast results of the line parameters empirical formulas are more beneficial.

Although

the presence of two dielectric regimes in microstrip precludes the strict propagation of TEM waves, the same type of transmission-line characteristics are present, as can be seen from the fact that microstrip can propagate energy down to zero frequency (direct current).

There

are three major losses in a microstrip

1.Conductor loss 2.Dielectric loss 3.radiation loss

Peak power handling capability when the breakdown occurs in substrate

Vo is the maximum breakdown voltage of the substrate Zc is the characteristic impedance of the microstrip

The

major advantage of microstrip over stripline is that all active components can be mounted on top of the board. microstrip circuits can radiate, causing unintended circuit response. The advantages of microstrip have been well established, and it is a convenient form of transmission line structure for probe measurements of voltage, current and waves.

The

disadvantages of microstrip compared with waveguide are the generally lower power handling capacity, and higher losses. Also, unlike waveguide, microstrip is not enclosed. The disadvantages are that when high isolation is required such as in a filter or switch, some external shielding may have to be considered.

Microstrip

filter designs involve a number of considerations, including careful choice of topologies and substrates. construction lends itself to small structures that can carry semiconductor devices and surface-mount lumped elements, which can be attached by automatic means

Microstrip

Some

design examples of new topologies with advanced filtering characteristics have been described, including 1.Open Loop resonator filters 2.Multilayer filters 3.Slow-wave filters 4.Dual-mode filters

Driven

by applications and emerging device technologies, many new and advanced microstrip filters have been developed