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Prepared byKushal goel Rushikesh solase


An electric motor is a device which is used to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy

All electric motors by definition have a fixed stator or stationary part, and a rotor or moveable part

Electric motors are inherently powerful

you can move a mountain. Nearly all traction motors deliver near peak torque at zero rpm. Thats why electric traction motors have powered our trolley cars, subways, and diesel-electric railroad locomotives
Electric motors are inherently efficient

Electric motors are rated at their point of

maximum efficiency Which may be capable of 24 times their continuous rating but only for a few minutes For example, the FB1-4001A motor is rated as 30 hp continuous at 144V and 100 hp peak The 5-minute rating of the FB1-4001A motor is 48 hp at 144V

Each 1,000 lbs. of vehicle weight after conversion

requires 68 hp. This is the continuous rating of the motor The available horsepower of a motor increases with voltage for example, the FB1-4001A motor is rated at 18 hp continuous at 72V but is rated at 30 hp continuous at 144V As the voltage is increased the rpm increases. Therefore Horsepower is a function of rpm and torque.

Highway speeds require greater horsepower

The horsepower required at 70 mph is four times

the horsepower required at 35 mph

DC Electric Motor

AC Electric Motor


Armature The armature is the main current-carrying part

of a motor that normally rotates and produces torque via the action of current flow in its coils. The armature usually consists of a shaft surrounded by laminated sheet steel pieces called the armature core. The laminations reduce eddy current losses There are grooves or slots parallel to the shaft around the outside of the core

The function of this part is not only to provide support for the mechanical elements, but also to provide a magnetic path for the lines of flux to complete their circuitjust like the lines of flux around a bar magnet.

DC Motor Operation
In a dc motor, the stator poles are supplied by dc excitation current, which produces a dc magnetic field. The rotor is supplied by dc current through the brushes, commutator and coils. The interaction of the magnetic field and rotor current generates a force that drives the motor





Pole winding

| 1 8 2 3 6 5 4

Insulation Rotor Winding


Copper segment

The magnetic field lines enter into the rotor from the north pole (N) and exit toward the south pole (S). The poles generate a magnetic field that is perpendicular to the current carrying conductors. The interaction between the field and the current produces a Lorentz force The force is perpendicular to both the magnetic field and conductor
Direction of force is given by flemings left hand rule

Fleming's Left Hand Rule

THUMB=Direction of Rotation (Lorentz Force)

FORE FINGER=Magnetic Field Direction

MIDDLE FINGER=Conventional Current Direction

The generated force turns the rotor until the coil reaches the neutral point between the poles. However, inertia drives the motor beyond the neutral zone where the direction of the magnetic field reverses. To avoid the reversal of the force direction, the commutator changes the current direction, which maintains the counterclockwise rotation.

1. Series 2. Shunt 3. Compound


The superior AC system will replace the entrenched but inferior DC one.
George Westinghouse (from Tesla: Man Out of Time)

Inventor of AC motor is : Nikola Tesla 1982: Tesla envisions rotating fields

1883: Tesla develops poly-phase AC induction motor

1887: Tesla develops brushless AC motor 1888: Tesla patented for a rotating transformer.

AC motors works on Alternating current(AC). AC is an electrical current whose magnitude and direction vary cyclically

AC Motor which encounters most often in our everyday life, the great majority of our homes, offices, and factories are fed by alternating current (AC).

CD/DVD players Toys Household appliances Locomotives Pipeline compressors

A transformer consists of two copper coils wound on a ferromagnetic core The primary is normally connected to a source of

alternating electric current. The secondary is normally connected to the load.

Working Of Transformer
When a changing current is applied to the primary coil, a changing magnetic field common to both coils results in the transfer of electrical energy to the second coil. There are two types of transformer: 1) Step-Up transformer 2) Step-Down transformer

An outside stationary stator having coils supplied with AC current to produce a rotating magnetic field An inside rotor which is attached to the output shaft.

1) The synchronous motor rotates at the supply frequency 2) The induction motor turns slightly slower. 3) Single-phase motors run on only one of the three phases of current operate on the domestic electricity supply. 4) Multi (Commonly three phase) motors Run on three of the phases of current produced by power stations. Mainly used for high power applications

At startup you have no net torque (or more correctly,

balanced opposing torques) operating on its motionless rotor conductors. It cause problem of starting, we have two apply force by hand to give initial twist. To avoid this if we introduce a second winding that is physically at right angles to the main stator winding, it induce a rotor current out of phase with the main rotor current that is sufficient to start the motor.

To maximize the electrical phase difference between the two windings, the resistance of the starting winding is much higher and its induction is much lower than the running winding. The most common split-phase induction motor is one that uses a capacitor-start

Polyphase A C motor