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The Ancients and Urinary Stones


Urinary stones have afflicted humans since the dawn of history. The first known stones were discovered in Egyptian mummies. In 1901, the English Archeologist E. Smith found a bladder stone from a 4500-5000 year old mummy in El Amrah, Egypt. Treatments for stones were mentioned in ancient Egyptian medical writings from 1500 B.C. Surgery to treat stones was first described in the 8th century B.C. by an ancient Indian surgeon named Sushruta. He provided detailed information on urinary stones, urinary anatomy, and surgery for stones in his writings, compiled as

Urinary Stones in the Middle Ages


In the middle ages, surgeons called lithotomists traveled around Europe with their special tables called lithotomy tables on which they placed patients to cut out stones. Surgery in the middle ages occurred well before the invention of anesthesia or antibiotics and many men chose instead to not undergo treatment for their stones. The number of patients who died from their lithotomy surgery was frighteningly high and lithotomists were known to leave town quickly if things went bad.

Urinary Stones in the Middle Ages


The surgeries were so fraught with danger and pain that Jan de Doot, a Dutch blacksmith, was said to have performed a surgery on himself to remove a bladder stone. A painting from 1655 by Carel de Savoyen depicts Doot, holding his knife and bladder stone. His approach was to make an incision below the scrotum directly into the bladder, find the stone, and extract it. He had his brother help him in the surgery by holding the scrotum aside. de Doot apparently had already experienced two of these surgeries by lithotomists before performing his third diy surgery. It is from them that he likely learned the technique.

Purpose of Study
To be aware of KIDNEY STONES disease

We will be aware How dangerous Kidneys Stones disease is.. To learn about kidney stone (educated) we can know the: Causes; Prevention; Treatment(cure); Diets; etc.

Kidney stone
A kidney stone, also known as a renal calculus

(from the Latin ren, "kidney" and calculus, "pebble") is a solid concretion or crystal aggregation formed in the kidneys from dietary minerals in the urine.

Urinary stones are typically classified by their location in the:


Kidney nephrolithiasis

Ureter ureterolithiasis
Bladder cystolithiasis

Kidney stones typically leave the body by passage in the urine stream, and many stones are formed and passed without causing symptoms. If stones grow to sufficient size (usually at least 3 millimeters (0.12 in)) they can cause obstruction of the ureter. Ureteral obstruction causes postrenal azotemia and hydronephrosis (distension and dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces), as well as spasm of the ureter. This leads to pain, most commonly felt in the flank (the area between the ribs and hip), lower abdomen, and groin (a condition called renal colic). Renal colic can be associated with nausea, vomiting, fever, blood in the urine, pus in the urine, and painful urination. Renal colic typically comes in waves lasting 20 to 60 minutes, beginning in the flank or lower back and often radiating to the groin or genitals. The diagnosis of kidney stones is made on the basis of information obtained from the history,

Types of Stones
Calcium Oxalate Most common Calcium Phosphate Struvite More common in woman than men. Commonly a result of UTI. Uric Acid Caused by high protein diet and gout.

Cystine Fairly uncommon; generally linked to a hereditary disorder.

Samples

Signs and symptoms


A kidney stone may not cause symptoms until it moves around within your kidney or passes into your ureter the tube connecting the kidney and bladder. At that point, these signs and symptoms may occur: Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs Pain that spreads to the lower abdomen and groin Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity Pain on urination Pink, red or brown urine Cloudy or foul-smelling urine Nausea and vomiting Persistent urge to urinate Urinating more often than usual Fever and chills if an infection is present Pain caused by a kidney stone may change for instance, shifting to a different location or increasing in intensity as the stone moves through your urinary tract. click

Kidney Stones

PREVENTION
Hydration

8-10 Glasses of water


Urine Alkalinisation Diuretics Allopurinol

Dietary Measures

DIAGNOSIS
X-ray or sonogram

Blood and urine tests


Computed tomography (CT) scan Intravenous contrast dye Intravenous pyelorgram (IVP) Serial X-rays Abovementioned tests

TREATMENT
Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) Ureteroscopy (URS) Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) Open Surgery

The Outcome
colicky pain Decrease or loss of function in the affected kidney. Kidney damage and scarring. Obstruction of the ureter Recurrence of stones. Urinary tract infection. kidney stones tend to be hereditary

General Recommendations for Kidney Stone Prevention

1.

Increase Urine Volume

The number one thing you can do to prevent stone formation is to drink more fluids, thereby diluting your urine. Your goal should be to urinate more than two liters per day. Water is the best choice. To avoid issues related to certain types of water (hard water with high calcium content, softened water with high sodium content), purified bottled water is highly recommended.

2. Consume Adequate Calcium


Stone formers sometimes think they should restrict

calcium intake. There is no research that supports this practice. Your body needs dietary calcium to support the skeleton. We encourage you to consume two servings of dairy (but no more than two) or other calcium-rich food per day to maintain bone stores of calcium. If possible, avoid calcium supplements in tablet or capsule form.

3. Decrease Salt/Sodium Intake


The human body carefully regulates its sodium levels.

When excess sodium is excreted in the urine, calcium is also excreted proportionally. In other words, the more sodium you take in and excrete, the more calcium you waste in the urine. Excess calcium in the urine can lead to new stone formation. Try to reduce dietary sources of sodium, including fast foods, packaged or canned foods, and salty snacks.

4. Decrease Protein Intake


Most people exceed necessary protein intake. This can

lead to uric acid stone formation. As a general recommendation, limit your daily protein intake to 12 ounces per day of beef, poultry, fish and pork. Twelve ounces is equivalent in size to about three decks of cards. This will be plenty to meet your body's needs.

5. Moderating consumption of oxalate-rich foods


Oxalate is found naturally in many fruits and

vegetables. The highest amounts of oxalate are found in dark-green leafy vegetables such as beet greens, okra, spinach. Other plants that are rich in oxalate include instant coffee, star fruit, soy nuts, tofu, soy yogurt, soy milk, and sweet potatoes. Limiting consumption of these foods may help prevent calcium oxalate stones from forming.

6. Using vitamins carefully


Do not consume more than 100 percent

of the recommended daily dose for vitamins C and D and calcium. Recent research indicates that dietary supplements, especially calcium, should be taken with a meal to minimize the risk of forming a kidney stone.

Conclusion

We therefore conclude that Kidney stones can be really painful and may require surgery for cure. The newest method of removing stones is Lithrotipsy means stone crushing. This process takes a range from one to three hours long. One in every 20 persons suffer from kidney stones at some point in their lifetime. Once they have a kidney stone attack the chances of recurrence are 70-80%. It was known that most family genes vastly influence the chances of having a kidney stone.

Prevention is better than cure. We only need to do is to consume a lot of water and urinate when the bladder is full. And when there are any of the above symptoms it is better to consult a certified physician without delay.