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The Basics of Database Archiving


DAMA Kansas City Chapter
9 Macrh, 2010
Jack E. Olson jack.olson@SvalTech.com www.svaltech.com

Database Archiving: How to Keep Lots of Data for a Long Time Jack E. Olson, Morgan Kaufmann, 2008
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Topics
Database Archiving Definitions Database Archiving Application Profiles Elements of a Successful Implementation Solution Comparisons Business Case Basics

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Database Archiving Definitions

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Definition
The process of removing selected data items from operational databases that are not expected to be referenced again and storing them in an archive database where they can be retrieved if needed.

Physical Documents application forms mortgage papers prescriptions

File Archiving structured files source code reports

Document Archiving Multi-media files word pictures pdf sound excel telemetry XML

Email Archiving outlook lotus notes

Database Archiving DB2 IMS ORACLE SAP PEOPLESOFT

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Business Records: the Archive Unit


You dont archive databases; you archive data from databases. A Business Record is the data captured and maintained for a single business event or to describe a single real world object. Databases are collections of Business Records. Database Archiving is Records Retention.
customer employee stock trade purchase order deposit loan payment

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Data Retention
The requirement to keep data for a business object for a specified period of time. The object cannot be destroyed until after the time for all such requirements applicable to it has past.
Business Requirements

Regulatory Requirements

The Data Retention requirement is the longest of all requirement lines.

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Data Retention
Retention requirements vary by business object type

Retention requirements from regulations are exceeding business requirements


Retention requirements will vary by country Retention requirements imply the obligation to maintain the authenticity of the data throughout the retention period

Retention requirements imply the requirement to faithfully render the data on demand in a common business form understandable to the requestor
The most important business objects tend to have the longest retention periods The data with the longest retention periods tends to be accumulate the largest number of instances Retention requirements often exceed 10 years. more years for some applications Requirements exist for 25, 50, 70 and

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Data Time Lines


for a single instance of a business record

create event
operational phase reference phase inactive phase

discard event

operational phase

can be updated, can be deleted, may participate in processes that create or update other data

reference phase

used for business reporting, extracted into business intelligence or analytic databases, anticipated queries

inactive phase

no expectation of being used again, no known business value, being retained solely for the purpose of satisfying retention requirements. Must be available on request in the rare event a need arises.

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Data Time Lines


Some objects exit the operational phase almost immediately (financial records) Some objects never exit the operational phase (customer name and address) Most transaction data has an operational phase of less than 10% of the retention requirement and a reference phase of less than 20% of the retention requirement Inactive data generally does not require access to application programs: only access to ad hoc search and extract tools

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Database Archiving Application Profiles

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Overloaded Operational Database


Transaction data Lots of data
Hundreds of millions of rows High daily transaction rate

24/7 operational availability requirement Long retention period (15 years or more) Short useful active life (less than 2 years) Low access requirements during the inactive period
Very low access frequency Response time not critical Access requirements are simple, easily satisfied with ad hoc tools

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Retired Application
Merger of companies results in an operational application being duplicated Data Structures are not compatible
One keeps data elements not in other One encodes data elements differently One designed for different OS/DBMS than other

Decision is made to use one system and abandon the other one Meets all characteristics of an operational application
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Application Renovation Project


Application is undergoing major change
Replaced with packaged application Legacy modernization Legacy termination Rewritten to be web-centric Need to satisfy new requirements

Old data structures are out of date


Legacy DBMS Legacy file system

Data meets all other requirements for archiving operational application


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Elements of a Successful Implementation

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Archive Staff
Database Archive Specialist
Received education on database archive design and implementation Knows tools available Experienced Full time job

Database Archive Administrator


Received education on database archiving administration Full time job

Supporting Roles
Storage Administrators Database Administrators Data Stewards Security Administrators Compliance staff IT management Business Unit Management Legal Records Management

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Architecture of Database Archiving


Operational System
Application program OP DB

Archive Extractor

Archive extractor

Archive Administrator Archive Designer Archive Data Manager Archive Access Manager

Archive Server
archive catalog

archive storage

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Archive Designer Component


Metadata
Capture current metadata Validate it Enhance it Design archive storage format

Data
Define business records to be archived Define source of data Define data structures within operational system Define reference data needed to include with it Define archive format of data

Policies
Define extract policy (when a record becomes inactive) Define operational disposal policy (when to remove from operational database) Define storage policy (how to protect data in archive) Define discard policy (when to remove from archive)

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Archive Extractor Components


Extractor process
Verify consistency with design metadata Extract data as defined in designer Mark or delete from operational database as defined in designer Pass data to archive data manager Keep audit records on everything done Do not impact operational performance Support interruptions with transaction level recovery Support restart Finish scans within acceptable time periods

Scheduling
Establish periodic executions Find non-disruptive periods Be consistent

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Archive Extractors
Physical vs. Application Extractors
Operational System
Application program Archive extractor OP DB

Archive Extractor

Physical Extractor
Gets/deletes data directly from the database tables, rows, columns

Application Extractor
Gets/deletes data from an application API virtual tables, rows, columns

application program

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Archive Data Manager Component


Put data away
Receive data from extractors Format into archive segment files Determine metadata version affinity Format and store metadata files if new Build or update segment indexes both internal and external

Execute Storage policies


Encryption/ signatures Backup copies created and stored Geographic dispersion of backups Register archive files with archive catalog Enter audit trail information

Fetch metadata on request


Return to accessing programs

Fetch data on request


Scan archive segments Search through indexes

Execute Archive Discard Process


Periodic scheduling Delete qualifying business records Update archive catalog

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Archive Access Component


Query Capability
Determine applicability based on archive segment versions of metadata SQL based is best, if possible Employ external indexes to determine which archive segments to look into Employ internal indexes to avoid reading all of an archive segment

Support standard access tools


Report generation (such as Crystal Reports) Generic query tools JDBC interface

Support metadata version browsing Support generation of load files based on query results Support generation of load files based on original data source based on query results

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Archive Administration Component


Manage Archive Catalog
Application archive designs Audit trails Results logs

Manage Archive Storage Systems


Ensure periodic readability checks Maintain access audit trails

Manage Archive Access


Authorizations for users Authorizations for specific events Unloads Ensure audit records are created for all access

Manage e-Discovery requests Ensure Extract and Discard processes are run when they are supposed to Manage Metadata Change Process

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Solution Comparisons

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Home-Grown vs. Vendor


Home-Grown Solutions:
Use Parallel DB Use Database Partitions Put in UNLOAD files Save Image Copies of DB

Vendor Solutions:
More Complete Solutions Support Long Term Administration Put data in XML files Put data in reformatted files Exploit strengths of storage subsystems

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Home-Grown Solutions
Solve Operational Problems, BUT:
Create downstream problems Fail to achieve cost savings Render archive data inaccessible Either completely or, Expensive in time and cost to query Lose data authenticity

Common Omissions
No handling or improvement of metadata No change process for structure changes No long term storage management Fail to achieve application/system independence No administration platform

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Vendor Solutions
Not a Lot of Vendors
Only 6 I know of 3 large companies Through acquisition Gartner pre-recession characterization Is a new technology $100M in 2008 40% per year growth rate Early adopter stage

Solutions not complete


Need growth in function and maturity Common weak spots Design modeling Extractor technology Not pervasive across data sources Storage structure Storage management 26

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Business Case Basics

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Drivers
Longer Data Retention requirements Expanded Business Mergers and Acquisitions overloaded operational databases Operational problems

Cost of Keeping Old Systems Difficulty in Making Application Changes

Data Governance e-Records Retention e-Discovery Readiness concerns

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Reason for Archiving


All data in operational db most expensive system most expensive storage most expensive software
In a typical op db 60-80% of data is inactive Size Today This percentage is growing

Inactive data in archive db least expensive system least expensive storage least expensive software

Operational

operational

archive

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Cost Saving Elements


Look for and compute difference in storage costs front-line vs archive storage byte counts differences between operational and archive Look for and compute difference in system costs operational vs archive systems are operational system upgrades avoided are software upgrades avoided can systems be eliminated for application can software be eliminated for application Look for savings on people costs can people be eliminated or redirected for retired applications Potential savings on changes/ application renovations simplification of design elimination of data conversions

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Operational Efficiency Impacts


Will operational performance be enhanced with less data Will utility time periods be reduced (backup, reorganization) fewer occurrences needed less data to process each time Will recovery times be reduced and what is that worth interruption recoveries disaster recoveries Will implementation of data structure changes be improved avoided reduced amount of data to unload/modify/reload

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Risk Factors
Will the saved data have better authenticity not changed in archive shielded from updates or damage traceable back to original form Will e-Discovery benefit from archiving can locate and process data outside of operational environment can easily create legal-hold archive units Will exposure of data reduced fewer authorized users against the archive complete audit trails of all access

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Business Case Summary


Database Archiving solutions generally provide for lower cost software, can use lower cost storage more efficiently, and run on smaller machines. Each business case is different Many factors can be used in building business case Seen an application justified on storage costs alone Seen an application justified on disaster recovery time alone Seen an application justified on better data security alone Each organization will have many potential applications Having a database archiving practice can create synergies across many applications thus adding more value

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Final Thoughts
Database Archiving is coming Database Archiving is good Reduces cost Improves operational efficiency Reduces Risk Need a complete solution to be effective Need professional staff Educated Fulltime

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