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Transformers :

Principle, Types and Constructional Details.


R. K. Mishra Director & Head of Institute NPTINER, Guwahati.

Layout of Switchyard showing locations of different Transformers in a TPS :

Transformer :

Static Apparatus Core Type (small size) Shell Type (large size) 1 Transformer 3 Transformer (either 3 Nos. of 1 Transformer or, single unit 3 Transformer)
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Advantages of single unit 3 Transformer :

Greater efficiency Smaller size Less cost compared with a Bank having equal kVA capacity of three 1 Transformer

Advantages of three 1 units :

Greater availability with a single standby. Ease of maintenance. Ease of manufacture, transportation and erection.

Symbols :

Symbols (contd.) :

Name Plate Details :


(1). (2). (3). (4). (5). (6). (7). IS standard IS:2026:1962 etc. Manufacturers Name. Serial No. Rated kVA. Frequency. Number of phases. Rated voltage on noload (HV/LV).
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Name Plate Details (contd.) :


(08). Rated current (HV/LV). (09). Impedance voltage in %. (10). Winding connection vector diagram. (11). Type of cooling. (12). Weight of core assembly and winding in Kgs.

Name Plate Details (contd.) :


(13). Total quantity and weight of insulating liquid. (14). Weight of complete transformer. (15). Temperature rise in oil. (16). Year of manufacture. (17). Customer reference.

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Core type transformer :

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Core Type Transformer (contd.) :

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Core Type Transformer (contd.) :

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Core Type 3 Transformer :

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Core Type 3 Transformer (contd.) :

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Shell Type Transformer :

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Shell Type Transformer (contd.):

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Shell Type Transformer (contd.):

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Shell Type Transformer (contd.) :

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Shell Type 3 Transformer :

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Core and Shell Type Transformer :

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Types of Transformer :
(1). As per construction : (a) Core type transformer (b) Shell type transformer (2). As per voltage : (a) Stepup transformer (b) Stepdown transformer (c) Auto transformer
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Types of Transformer (contd.) :


(3). As per phase : (a) 1 Transformer (b) 3 Transformer bank of 3 Nos. of 1 Transformer single unit 3 Transformer
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Types of Transformer (contd.) :


(4). As per application : (a) Power Transformer (b) Distribution Transformer (c) Isolation Transformer

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Types of Transformer (contd.) :


(5). As per winding : (a) Single winding transformer (b) Two winding transformer (c) Three winding transformer

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Tertiary Winding :
(1). Reduces triple harmonic contents of output voltage thereby stabilizes potential of neutral point. (2). Suppresses 3rd harmonic current which causes communication interference.

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Tertiary Winding (contd.):


(3). Permits the transformation of unbalanced 3 load. (4). Reduces system zero sequence impedance for effective grounding. (5). Supplies additional auxiliary load.

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Differences between Power Transformer and Distribution Transformer :


Power Transformer Distribution Transformer

Single 3 unit or, three 1 Single 3 unit, 01. 01. units, / and /, 4wire. /, 3wire.

02. Capacity : MVA

02. Capacity : kVA

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Differences between Power Transformer and Distribution Transformer (contd.) :


Power Transformer voltage rating : 03. 220 kV/11 kV or, higher as 400 kV 04. Flux density : 1.5 to 1.7 Wb m2 Distribution Transformer

voltage rating : 11 kV/415 V, 03. (HV : 33 kV also), 415 V/230 V etc.


04. Flux density : 1.7 Wb m2

05. Load : on full load

Load : part of day 05. on noload, part load.


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Differences between Power Transformer and Distribution Transformer (contd.):


Power Transformer Distribution Transformer

Ratio of iron loss Ratio of iron loss 06. to copper loss = 06. to copper loss = 1:1 1:3 07. % impedance = 6% to 18% 07. % impedance = 4% to 5%

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Differences between Power Transformer and Distribution Transformer (contd.) :


Power Transformer Distribution Transformer

Cooling : forced air, forced oil, 08. forced water, self oil cooled. Regulation : 09. 6% to 10 %

08.

Cooling : self oil cooled.

Regulation : 4% 09. to 9%

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Distribution Transformer Ratings :


kVA ratings : 63 kVA, 100 kVA, 25 kVA, 40 kVA etc. Voltage ratings : 6.6 kV/415 V, 11 kV/415 V Tappings : 2.5%, 5.0%

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Transformer Specifications :
(1). (2). (3). (4). (5). (6). kVA rating Rated Voltage No. of phases Rated Frequency Connections Tappings

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Transformer Connections : 3 connections


(a)

connection : schematic diagram

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Transformer Connections (contd.) : 3 connections


(a) connection : features :

0 phase shift. Economic for small HV Transformer, because No. of turns per phase and amount of insulation is minimum as Vph = VL/(3). So, conductors are of large cross section. Less expensive and mechanically strong winding.
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Transformer Connections (contd.) : 3 connections


(b) connection : schematic diagram

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Transformer Connections (contd.) : 3 connections


(b) connection : features : 0 phase shift. Economic for large, LV Transformer in which insulation problem is not urgent. Vph = VL

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Transformer Connections (contd.) : 3 connections


(c) connection : features : +30 phase shift. Main use at sub-station end where voltage is to be stepped down. Ratio between primary line voltage and secondary line voltage is = 3:1

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Transformer Connections (contd.) : 3 connections


(d) connection : features : 30 phase shift. Main use at the beginning of transmission system where voltage is to be stepped up. Ratio between primary line voltage and secondary line voltage is = 1:3
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Transformer Connections (contd.) : 3 connections


(e) Open or, Vconnection : (schematic diagram)

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Transformer Connections (contd.) : 3 connections


(e) Open or, Vconnection : features one of the Transformers of a bank is out and 3 supply is connected. Voltage output = 58% of Power output = 86.6% of

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Transformer Connections (contd.) : 3 connections


(f) Scottconnection or, TT connection :

One of the Transformers has centre taps both on primary and secondary windings and known as Main Transformer, other one has tapping at 0.866 and known as Teaser Transformer.

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Transformer Connections (contd.) : 3 connections


(f) Scottconnection or, TT connection : (schematic diagram)

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Impedance Voltage :
It is the voltage required to be applied at rated frequency between line terminals of a 3 winding or, between terminals of a 1 winding to cause the rated current to flow into these terminals when the terminals of the other windings are shorted. It is measured as % of rated voltage of former winding.

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Vector Group :

1st symbol HV winding connection 2nd symbol LV winding connection 3rd symbol phase displacement 1 1 Oclock 30 2 11 Oclock +30 3 6 Oclock 180 4 12 Oclock 0
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Vector Table :
(a) 0 phase shift : yo Ddo Dzo

Zdo
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Vector Table :
(b) 30 phase shift (Lag) : Dy1 yd1 yz1 zy1

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Vector Table :
(c) +30 phase shift (Lead) : Dy11 Yd11 Yz11 Zy11

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Vector Table :
(d) 180 phase shift :

Yy6 Dd6 Dz6 Zd6


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Construction :
(01). (02). (03). (04). (05). (06). (07). (08). (09). (10). (11). (12). Core Windings Tap Changers Tanks Bushings Auxiliary Equipment Cooling System Insulating Oil Conservator Tank Breather Radiators Buchholz Relay

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Construction (contd.) :
(1). Core : laminated, thickness : 0.28 mm to 0.30 mm, CRGO, 3% silicon iron.

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Construction (contd.) :
(2). Winding :

type : spiral, helical, or, disc type. selection depends on current rating short circuit strength temperature rise overload condition impedance voltage surge strength
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Construction (contd.) :
(3). Tap Changers :

OFFLoad type and ONLoad type. In generating stations mainly OFFLoad types are used as voltage regulation is done by AVR. Power Transformers in receiving stations are having ONLoad type. In Power Stations, station service transformers have ONLoad type. Tappings are provided on HV side.

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Construction (contd.) :
(4). Tank : Body is made up of rolled steel plate. Conservator tank is cylindrical and permits free expansion of oil w.r.t. temperature. Oil Gauge is provided to indicate the oil level.
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Construction (contd.) :
(5). Breather : Air is drawn into conservator through a vent which has moisture trap (silica gel). Blue dry & Pink moisture.

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Construction (contd.):
(6). Bushings : connected to HV lines. moulded high quality glazed porcelain insulator with conductor through its centre (up to 33 kV). HV oil filled condenser pattern graded resin bonded paper.

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Construction (contd.) :
(7). Cooling Systems :

ON or, OA type oil immersed natural cooling. FOW or, OFW type oil immersed forced oil cooled with forced water cooled. AA or, AN type dry type self cooled (below 15 kV). AFAAB type dry type forced. AA/AFA & AN/AB type.
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Parallel Operation :
(1). Primary windings of Transformers suitable for supply system voltage and frequency. (2). Transformers should be properly connected with regard to polarity. (3). Voltage ratings of both primaries and secondaries should be identical (same transformation ratio).

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Parallel Operation (contd.):


(4). Percentage impedance should be same, i.e., (I1Zo1/V1)x100 = (I2Zo2/V2)x100. (5). Voltage ratio must refer to terminal voltage of primary and secondary (not ratio of No. of turns per phase). (6). Phase displacement between primary and secondary voltages must be same. (7). Phase sequence must be same.

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Parallel Operation (contd.):


(8). Examples : can be operated in parallel with (with same transformation ratio possible). can be operated in parallel with (with same transformation ratio possible). or, can not be paralled with or, . and can be paralled by certain shiftings.
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Transformers in 210 MW Thermal Power Station :


(1). Main Unit stepup Transformer : also known as GeneratorTransformer (GT). voltage rating : 15.75 kV / 220 kV. capacity : 250 MVA tapchanger : OFFLoad type.

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Transformers in 210 MW Thermal Power Station (contd.):


(2).Unit Auxiliary Transformer (UAT) : stepdown type. voltage rating : 15.75 kV / 6.6 kV. capacity : 10,000 kVA tapchanger : ONLoad type, 2 Nos.

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Transformers in 210 MW Thermal Power Station (contd.):


(3). Station Auxiliary Transformer (SAT) :
stepdown type. voltage rating : 220 kV / 6.6 kV. capacity : 16,000 kVA. tapchanger : ONLoad type, 2 Nos.
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Transformers in 210 MW Thermal Power Station (contd.):


(4). Transformers for LT supply : Cooling Tower two transformers each of 1000 kVA. Electrostatic Precipitator one transformer of 1600 kVA. Standby one transformer of 1600 kVA. Lighting one transformer of 1000 kVA.

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Generator Transformer (GT) :


250 MVA, 3, 50 Hz. Cooling OFWF. HV at NoLoad 230 kV. LV at NoLoad 15.75 kV. HV line current 627.55 Amp LV line current 9164.29 Amp Temperature rise of oil 50 C Temperature rise of winding 60 C Connection Nd11 Impedance voltage 12.77% Weight of core and winding 140265 kg Weight of oil 43380 kg (49860 Litre) Total weight 216980 kg

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Unit Auxiliary Transformer (UAT) :


15 MVA / 25 MVA, 3, 50 Hz. Cooling ONAN / ONAF HV at NoLoad 15.75 kV LV at NoLoad 7 kV HV line current 917.5 Amp LV line current 2064.4 Amp Temperature rise of oil 50 C Temperature rise of winding 55 C Connection Dyn1 Percentage impedance 10.08, 10.22 and 10.38 Weight of core and winding 18300 kg Weight of oil 7440 kg (7800 Litre) Total weight 37500 kg

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Station Transformer (ST) :


25 MVA / 40 MVA, 3, 50 Hz. Cooling ONAN / ONAF HV at NoLoad 220 kV LV at NoLoad 7 kV or, 11 kV Connection Nyn0d1 Percentage impedance 15.21, 17.32 and 20.53 Weight of core and winding 36000 kg Weight of oil 27500 kg (31600 Litre) Total weight 88000 kg

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