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Refrigeration

and

Air Conditioning

References
Introduction to Naval Engineering, Chapter 19, pp. 341-351 Principles of Naval Engineering, Chapter 22, pp. 22-1 22-17

AC &R Objectives
Basic operation Principle components Safety considerations Thermodynamic principles

Uses of AC&R Systems


Cooling of stores and cargo Cooling of electronic spaces and equipment
CIC (computers and consoles) Radio (communications gear) Radars

Cooling of magazines Air conditioning for crew comfort

Definition Review
Specific heat (Cp)
Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of substance 1F (water is 1 Btu/lb F)

Sensible heat - add energy and temp rises Latent heat of vaporization - liquid to vapor BTU (British Thermal Unit) Refrigeration - Cooling of an object and the maintenance of its temp below that of surroundings

Generic Cycle

Thermodynamic Cycle

Condenser TXV Compressor Evaporator

Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle


Refrigerant Receiver Thermostatic expansion valve (TXV) Evaporator Compressor Condenser

Refrigeration Cycle

Refrigerant
Must have the following properties
High latent heat of vaporization - max cooling Non-toxicity - not a health hazard Desirable saturation temperature - for operating pressures Stability - nonflammable/nonexplosive Ease of leak detection Low cost Readily available

R-12, R-114

Expansion
Liquid Freon enters the expansion valve at high pressure Refrigerant leaves TXV at a much lower pressure As pressure drops, vapor formation begins as Freon enters saturation region

Evaporation
From TXV - Freon is a saturated mixture of liquid and vapor Cooling coil acts as a heat exchanger Absorbs its latent heat of vaporization from the surroundings Slightly superheated (10F) - ensures no liquid goes to compressor

Compression
Low pressure, superheated Freon vapor enters the suction side of the compressor Refrigerant is compressed from a low pressure vapor to a high pressure vapor Increase in energy provides the driving force to allow the Freon to flow through the system

Condensation
Refrigerant returned to starting point as a high pressure/temperature subcooled liquid Latent heat of condensation (LHC) Sea water heat exchanger is used to absorb the LHC and discharge it overboard

Receiver
Temporary storage space and surge tank for the sub-cooled refrigerant Serves as a vapor seal to prevent vapor from entering the expansion valve

Air Conditioning Principles of Operation


Air Conditioning
Maintaining the atmosphere of an enclosed space at a required temp, humidity and purity Cools / Dehumidifies air via cooling coils within ventilation system Heaters in ventilation system Humidification units may be present

Air Conditioning Systems


Refrigerant circulating system
Directly cools cooling coils

Chilled water circulating system


Refrigeration system cools chill water, which cools cooling coils

Self-Contained System
Added on to ships which originally did not have AC plants Not located in ventilation system (window unit)

Basic AC System

Safety Associated AC&R


Phosgene gas hazard (created when refrigerant is exposed to high temperatures) Handling procedures: Wear goggles and gloves to avoid eye irritation and frostbite Asphyxiation hazard in non-ventilated spaces (bilges since heavier than air)

Summary