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Basic Concepts of One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Spori Goran, PhD. http://kif.hr/predmet/mki http://www.science4performance.com/

Overview
What is ANOVA? When is it useful? How does it work? Some Examples Limitations Conclusions
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Definitions

Remember: RA Fischer, 1919Evolutionary Biology

ANOVA: analysis of variation in an experimental outcome and especially of a statistical variance in order to determine the contributions of given factors or variables to the variance.

Remember: Variance: the square of the standard deviation


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Introduction
Any data set has variability Variability exists within groups and between groups Question that ANOVA allows us to answer : Is this variability significant, or merely by chance?
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The difference between variation within a group and variation between groups may help us determine this. If both are equal it is likely that it is due to chance and not significant. H0: Variability w/i groups = variability b/t groups, this means that 1 = n Ha: Variability w/i groups does not = variability b/t groups, or, 1 n
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Assumptions
Normal distribution

Variances of dependent variable are equal in all populations Random samples; independent scores
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One-Way ANOVA
One factor (manipulated variable) One response variable

Two or more groups to compare


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Usefulness
Similar to t-test

More versatile than t-test


Compare one parameter (response variable) between two or more groups
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For instance, ANOVA Could be Used to:


Compare heights of plants with and without galls Compare birth weights of deer in different geographical regions Compare responses of patients to real medication vs. placebo Compare attention spans of undergraduate students in different programs at PC.
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Why Not Just Use ttests?


Tedious when many groups are present Using all data increases stability Large number of comparisons some may appear significant by chance

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Remember that
Standard deviation (s)
n

s = [( (xi X)2)/(n-1)]
i=1

In this case: Degrees of freedom (df)


df = Number of observations or groups - 1
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Notation
k = # of groups n = # observations in each group xij = one observation in group i Y = mean over all groups

Yi = mean for group i


SS = Sum of Squares MS = Mean of Squares = Between MS/Within MS

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FYI this is how SS Values are calculated


k ni

Total SS = (xij )2
i=1 j=1 k ni

SStot

Within SS = (xij
i=1 j=1 k ni

)2 = SSw i

Between SS = (
i=1 j=1

)2 = SSbet
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and
SStot = SSw + SSbet

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Calculating MS Values
MS = SS/df For between groups, df = k-1 For within groups, df= n-k

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Hypothesis Testing & Significance Levels

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F-Ratio = MSBet/MSw
If:
The ratio of Between-Groups MS: Within-Groups MS is LARGE reject H0 there is a difference between groups The ratio of Between-Groups MS: Within-Groups MS is SMALLdo not reject H0 there is no difference between groups
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p-values
Use table in stats book to determine p

Use df for numerator and denominator Choose level of significance


If F > critical value, reject the null hypothesis (for one-tail test)

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Example 1, pp. 400 of your handout


Three groups:
Middle class sample Persons on welfare Lower-middle class sample

Question: Are attitudes toward welfare payments the same?


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So,

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and

From the table with = 0.05 and df = 2 and 24, we see that if F > 3.40 we can reject Ho. This is what we would conclude in this case.
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Example 2
Bat cave gates:
Group 1 = No gate (NG) Group 2 = Straight entrance gate (SE) Group 3 = Angled entrance gate (AE) Group 4 = Straight dark zone gate (SD) Group 5 = Angled dark zone gate (AD)

Question: Is variation in bat flight speed greater within or between groups? Or Ho = no difference significant difference in means.
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Just leave me alone Max! Go back to your hockey!

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Example 2 (contd)
Hypothetical data for bat flight speed with various gate arrangements.
Group #, i 1 2 3 4 5 Gate Type NG SE AE SD AD Mean FS (m/s) 5.6 3.8 4.7 4.2 5.1 sd FS (m/s) 0.93 1.05 0.97 1.23 1.03 ni 150 150 150 137 143
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FS= Flight speed; sd = standard deviation

Example 2 SSbet
Between SS =

300

Group #, i

Gate Type

Mean FS (m/s)

sd FS (m/s)

ni

1 2 3 4 5

NG SE AE SD AD

5.6 3.8 4.7 4.2 5.1

0.93 1.05 0.97 1.23 1.03

150 150 150 137 143


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Example 2 SSw
Within SS = 790

Group #, i

Gate Type

Mean FS (m/s)

sd FS (m/s)

ni

1 2 3 4 5

NG SE AE SD AD

5.6 3.8 4.7 4.2 5.1

0.93 1.05 0.97 1.23 1.03

150 150 150 137 143


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Example 2 (contd)
Between MS = 300/4 = 75 Within MS = 790/(730-5) = 1.09 F Ratio = 75/1.09 = 68.8

See Table find p-value based on df= 4, Since F>value found on the table we 27 reject Ho.

What ANOVA Cannot Do


Tell which groups are different
Post-hoc test of mean differences required

Compare multiple parameters for multiple groups (so it cannot be used for multiple response variables)
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Some Variations
Two-Way, Three-Way, etc. ANOVA (will talk about this next class)
2+ factors

MANOVA (Multiple analysis of variance)


multiple response variables
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Summary
ANOVA:
allows us to know if variability in a data set is between groups or merely within groups is more versatile than t-test can compare multiple groups at once cannot process multiple response variables does not indicate which groups are different
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Now, lets go to our SPSS manual


Perform the sample problem on the effects of attachment styles on the psychology of sleep with the data set from the NAAGE site called Delta Sleep. Pay attention to the procedure and the post-hoc tests to determine which groups are significantly different. Perform the Tukey Test at a 5% significance level. Look at your output and interpret your results. Tell me when you are done.
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So, you had

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Then, following the steps

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You got

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and

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What do all these mean?

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When you are done with this,


Do practice exercises 1, 4, 6, 7 and 12 from the handout in SPSS.
Create the data sets. Run the one-way ANOVAS and interpret your results.

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