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CRITICAL/ LIBERATION PEDAGOGY

Paulo Freire
Lizamarie Olegario
U.P. Diliman Q.C. EDFD 201

Three Revolutions in Educational Theory (Ghiraldelli, 2000)


1st revolution (19th cen.) Pedagogy as a science of education with John Herbart. teaching of thinking: a lesson that started with a scientific or moral issue the mind was a logical thing the matters of the lessons should be showed in a logical or historical way. the teacher leads the process The student pays attention and works on the exercise The student does the exercises following the models given by teachers.

Three Revolutions in Educational Theory (Ghiraldelli, 2000)


2nd revolution Pedagogy linked to social and psychological life problems with John Dewey. The lessons should be put in a psychological way. theme from Comenius and Rousseau. Lessons should start with the problems of the world problems that brought interest and motivation for the children. "the way a child thinks is not wrong, but the child thinks a different way" main concern: the students

the learned: act like scientists.

Three Revolutions in Educational Theory (Ghiraldelli, 2000)


3rd revolution (20th cen, mainly after the World War II) Pedagogy would depend on political perspective in order to help the poor people. watched the emergence in the scene of the Third World appearance of poor and "odd" children inside schools The pedagogy of Paulo Freire.

Paulo Freire
Agreed with Herbart about teaching done in a collective fashion agreed with Dewey about motivation, psychology and sociology. the new ingredient inserted was the political ingredient. said that pedagogical action should be a political action. to make humans free put the educational process in the hands of militant "teachers". "students": men and women with ability to think political problems and start political

action

Critical theorist
systems must be changed to overcome oppression and improve human conditions. curriculum focuses on student experience and taking social action on real problems violence, hunger, international terrorism, inflation, and inequality dealing with controversial issues (particularly in social studies and literature), inquiry, dialogue, and multiple perspectives

Critical theorist
Community-based learning and bringing the world into the classroom Critical educators experience rage caused by the unjust circumstances that surround the educational experiences of the dispossessed (the poor, minorities, and other marginalized people). While being fully cognizant of the immense struggles to be faced to achieve the goal of social equity, they are committed to the notion that education can be a transformative process.

"One of the tasks of the progressive educator, through a serious, correct political analysis is to unveil opportunities for hope, no matter what the obstacles may be. After all, without hope there is little we can do. For hope is an ontological need...The attempt to do without hope in the struggle to improve the world, as if that struggle could be reduced to calculated acts alone, or a purely scientific approach, is a frivolous illusion." (Freire, 1998a)

Paulo Freire (1921-1997)


Pablo Freire, Pablo Reglus Freire Snows Birth date: September 19, 1921 Birth place: Recife, the capital of Pernambuco Province in Northwestern Brazil. Parents: Joaquin Temistocles Freire and Edeltrudes Freire Snows, devout Catholics, middle class Knew poverty and hunger during the 1929 Great Depression

Paulo Freire (1921-1997)


His father (Joaquin) died when Paulo was 13 the reversal in family fortunes and the neverending hunger he experienced is credited for his devotion to the less fortunate. recalled that poverty and hunger severely affected his ability to learn and ultimately influenced his decision to dedicate his life to improving the lives of the poor:

Paulo Freire (1921-1997)


"I didn't understand anything because of my hunger. I wasn't dumb. It wasn't lack of interest. My social condition didn't allow me to have an education. Experience showed me once again the relationship between social class and knowledge" (Moacir Gadotti, Reading Paulo Freire: His Life and Work).

Paulo Freire (1921-1997)


remained a devout Christian. youngest of four children mother taught him to read by writing letters and drawing pictures in the earthen yard. a grammar teacher while still in high school. family's financial situation eventually improved enough for him to enroll at the University of Recife, where he earned a law degree. soon abandoned the legal profession, choosing to teach Portuguese in secondary schools.

Paulo Freire
Married Elza Maia Costa de Oliveira, an elementary school teacher in 1944. Had five children, three of whom became educators. later shifted from secondary school to adult education and training director of education at SESI (1946), an employee's institution designed to help workers and their families. 1950s: lived and worked in the slum areas of Recife focusing on adult literacy "illiteracy is just one of the concrete expressions of an unjust social reality".

Paulo Freire (1921-1997)


Earned doctoral degree in 1959, University of Recife dissertation "Present Day Education in Brazil" in 1959. 1962: appointed national coordinator of adult literacy by the Governor of Pernambuco Province. This was a large-scale literacy campaign aimed at both agricultural workers and the urban poor. 300 sugarcane workers were taught to read and write in just 45 days

Paulo Freire (1921-1997)


1964: a military coup imprisoned Freire as a traitor for 70/ 75 days. During prison time, began his first major educational work, Education as the Practice of Freedom, a text he finished while in exile in Chile spent 5 years in Chile before coming to the United States at the invitation of Harvard University, where he taught as a visiting professor at the Center for Studies in Education and Development. During this period, Freire wrote his most famous work, Pedagogy of the Oppressed

Pedagogy of the Oppressed


argues against the "banking concept of education" in favor of a liberatory, dialogical pedagogy designed to raise individuals' consciousness of oppression and to in turn transform oppressive social structures through "praxis."

Banking Concept of Education


Positions students as empty vessels to be filled by the teacher education is traditionally framed as "an act of depositing, in which the students are the depositories and the teacher is the depositor" (Pedagogy of the Oppressed 58) the teacher lectures, and the students "receive, memorize, and repeat" (58). generally characterized by the following oppressive attitudes and practices: the teacher teaches and the students are taught;

Banking Concept of Education


the teacher knows everything and the students know nothing; the teacher thinks and the students are thought about; the teacher talks and the students listen-meekly; the teacher disciplines and the students are disciplined; the teacher chooses and enforces his choice, and the students comply; the teacher acts and the students have the illusion of acting through the action of the teacher;

Banking Concept of Education


the teacher chooses the program content, and the students (who are not consulted) adapt to it; the teacher confuses the authority of knowledge with his own professional authority, which he sets in opposition to the freedom of the students; the teacher is the Subject of the learning process, while the pupils are mere objects (59). Back to Pedagogy of the

Dialogical Method
abandons the lecture format and the banking approach to education in favor of dialogue and open communication among students and teachers all teach and all learn anti-dialogical method: the teacher as the transmitter of knowledge, a hierarchical framework that leads to domination and oppression through the silencing of students' knowledge and experiences.

Liberatory Education
raises students' consciousnesses preparing them to engage in larger social struggles for liberation attempts to empower learners to critique and challenge oppressive social conditions to envision and work towards a more just society back

Praxis
A complex activity involving a cycle theory, application, evaluation, reflection, and then back to theory Social transformation is the product of praxis at the collective level. Action Reflection } word =work=praxis

Paulo Freire (1921-1997)


1967: first book, Education as the Practice of Freedom. well received and Freire was offered a visiting professorship at Harvard University in 1969. The Brazilian government invited Freire to return from his 15 years of exile. 1980-1986: Supervisor of adult literacy project for the Workers Party in Sao Paulo, Brazil Outstanding Christian Educators (with his wife, Elza) in 1985 UNESCO 1986 Prize for Education for Peace.

Paulo Freire (1921-1997)


first wife, Elza died in 1986. later remarried former student and fellow radical educator, Ana Maria Araujo. 1991: at Freire's request, the Paulo Freire Institute was created to bring scholars and critics of his pedagogy into "a permanent dialogue that would foster the advancement of new educational theories and concrete interventions in reality" Death Date: May 2, 1997, of a heart attack in Rio de Janeiro. He was 75 years old.

Contributions
central premise: no education is neutral it can be used for domination/domestication or liberation. emphasis on dialogue Dialogue in itself is a cooperative activity involving respect concern with praxis - action that is informed (and linked to certain values). The idea of building a 'pedagogy of the oppressed' or a 'pedagogy of hope most non-literate people lived in a culture of silence, [Where] thinking is difficult. Speaking is forbidden.

Culture of Silence
A characteristic of oppressed people in colonized countries who do not have a voice in their society The dominant culture silences the oppressed through the cultural transmission of discourses in schools and other institutions that support its hegemony and through ignoring or demonizing other discourses that might challenge its authority. As a result, oppressed people learn to internalize negative images of themselves. Because they are not taught the tools of critical inquiry that would allow them to challenge these false representations, they remain passive and silent

Conscientization
developing consciousness, but consciousness that is understood to have the power to transform reality' Learning to perceive social, political, and economic contradictions-developing a critical awareness--so that individuals can take action against the oppressive elements of reality

Contributions
insistence on situating educational activity in the lived experience of participants look for words that have the possibility of generating new ways of naming and acting in the world when working with people around literacies is a good example of this new approach to literacy: linked "learning to read the word with learning to read the world".

Contributions
strong aversion to the teacher-student dichotomy wants us to think in terms of a teacher who learns and a learner who teaches democracy as an educational method and not merely a goal of democratic education.

Philosophical Relationships
From Marxism: The analysis of economically based conditions that cause political and social repression From Existentialism: The principle that human being is an unfinished project From Postmodernism: An emphasis on analysis of the immediate contexts in which oppressive conditions are imposed

Freire vs. Marx


People could create a culture that can transcend economic interest and promoted human evolution Elites must seek to become engaged in social reality. Elites must begin to see the laborer not as an abstraction but as an equal. The Arts must find inspiration in the hard life, not merely celebrate the comforts of luxury. Elites must join with the popular masses in all realms of culture-- literature, the plastic arts, theatre, music, education, sports. (Freire, 1971,p.39-40)

Struggling Against Miseducation


False Consciousness borrowed from Marx a failure or unwillingess to recognize historical truth and social reality leading to faulty selfconcept, and often to low self-esteem education that defines a persons values in terms of wealth and power and sees schooling as a ticket to a place in the corporate system misses the mark of being truly humanizing

Genuine Learning
occurs when teachers and students engage in a shared, ongoing dialogue that creates rather than transmits knowledge recognizes that all social and educational institutions are ideological ethically committed to fight racial, sexual, and class discrimination requires a critical capacity, tempered by humility and reflection

Educators
Teachers should have:
A tough, rigorous, critical attitude towards socioeconomic and political reality full and realistic awareness of conditions that limit the potentialities of human freedom Sense of humility (and therefore respect for students) Remembers that she does not know everything, but has much to learn from the members of the community

Educators
among the elites hold a crucial role in cultural transformation before the transformation, education has a fundamentally "narrative character"; that is, the narrative subject (teacher) talking to the listening object (student). While being narrated to, the student becomes lifeless and petrified. education could be structured to bring out "perception of the previous perception. . . knowledge of the previous knowledge" When one realizes ones potential consciousness, one can act to transform the world.

Problem Posing Education


consisting of acts of cognition that take place through dialogue Students and teachers become critical coinvestigators in dialogue with each other (Pedagogy of the Oppressed 68) "no one teaches another, nor is anyone self-taught. Men teach each other, mediated by the world, by the cognizable objects which in banking education are 'owned' by the teacher" ( 67).

References
Cohen, L.M. (1999). Philosophical perspectives in education. Retrieved on January 16, 2007 from http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/ PP4.html Cooke, S.L. (2001). Paulo Freire. Retrieved on January 16, 2007 from http://www.marxists.org/subject/educa tion/freire/pedagogy/index.htm Critical Pedagogy in the Web: Key Terms and Concepts Related to Critical Pedagogy and Educational Theory and Practice. Retrieved on January 16, 2007 from http://mingo.infoscience.uiowa.edu/~stevens/critped/t erms.htm Critical pedagogy on the web. Paulo Freire. Retrieved on January 16, 2007 from http://mingo.infoscience.uiowa.edu/~stevens/critped/fr eire.htm.

References
Freire, Paulo. (1984). Ramos, Myra Bergman (Trans.) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum. Ghilraldelli, Paulo. (2000). Educational Theory: Herbart, Dewey, Freire and Postmodernists: a Perspective from Philosophy of Education Lownd, P. Paulo Freire. Retrieved on January 16, 2007 from http://www.paulofreireinstitute.o rg/PFLife_and_work_by_Peter.html Lyons, J. (2001). Paulo Freires Educational Theory. Retrieved on January 16, 2007 from http://www.newfoundations.co

References
Paulo Freire. Retrieved on January 16, 2007 from http://www.education.miami.ed u/ep/contemporaryed/Paulo_Fr eire/paulo_freire.html Paulo Freire. Retrieved on January 16, 2007 from http://www.targetmarket.org/tar ge_3.htm Smith, M.K. (2007). Paulo Freire. Retrieved on January 16, 2007 from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pa ulo_Freire" Waugh, Colin. Paulo Freires Pedagogy of the Oppressed; www.shu.ac.uk./schools/ed/und er/friere.html and Bentley, Leslie. Dr. Paulo Freire;

References
Wikipedia. (2006). Philosophy of education. Retrieved on January 16, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phil osophy_of_education Williams, L. (1999). Rage and hope. Retrieved on January 16, 2007 from http://www.edb.utexas.edu/facu lty/scheurich/proj3/index2.html# top Williams, L. (1999). Educational banking. Retrieved on January 16, 2007 from http://www.perfectfit.org/CT/frei re3.html#top