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Scope of Presentation

Definition of terms

Important of Maps
Categories of Maps Scales Types Marginal information Azimuth and Back azimuth

Method of locating points


Elevation and Relief

Definition of terms
MAP -A map is a graphical representation of the earths surface or it, drawn or formed to scale on plane. Manmade and features are depicted by symbols; lines, colors, and forms. MAP READING - is the knowledge and skills necessary to interpret correctly and efficiently map information. MAP SYMBOLS is a sign composed of diagram, number, letter, abbreviation, colors, or combination thereof which is used to identify and distinguish a particular military unit, activity or installation. Topographic Symbols are simple standard drawing by which terrain features such as valleys, mountains, hills, water features, ate are shown on a map.

Important of Maps
When used correctly a map can give accurate information on such factors as distance, location, heights, best routes, key terrain features, concealment and cover. With combat elements widely dispersed in an area which might be in any part of the world, it becomes more necessary to reply upon maps. Combat operation in modern warfare must be concerned not only with familiar areas but also the far flung theaters of the world. Vast amounts of materials must be procured, transported scored and phased into the proper place in the over all plan. By necessity, much of this planning be done on maps. It is readily apparent that a major requirement for any operation is an adequate supply of maps. Equally apparent is the fact that the finest maps made are worthless unless the map user knows how to read them.

CATEGORIES OF MILITARY MAPS:


Scale= The scale is expressed as fraction and gives the

ratio of map distance to ground distances. The terms small scale, medium scale and large scale maybe confusing when read in conjunction with the numbers. However, the numbers must be viewed as fractions. When read that way, it quickly becomes apparent that one 1:600,000 of something is smaller than 1:75,000 of the same thing. Hence, the larger after 1: the smaller the scale of the map.

Small scale- Those maps with scales of 1:1,000,000 and smaller are

used for general planning and for strategic studies .The standard small-scale map is 1:1,000,000. This map covers a very large land area at the expense of detail. Medium scale- Those maps with scales larger than 1:1,000,000 but smaller than 1:75,000 are used for operational planning .They contain a moderate amount of detail, but terrain analysis is best done with the large-scale maps described below. The standard medium-scale map is 1:250,000. Medium scale maps of 1:100,000 are also frequently encountered. Large Scale- Those maps with scales of 1:75,000 and larger are used for tactical, administrative, and Representative fraction (scale) =map distance ground distance logistical planning (top map in Figure 2-1). These are the maps that you as a soldier or junior leader are most likely to encounter. The standard large-scale map is 1:50,000; however, many areas have been mapped at a scale of 1:25,000.

Larges Scale

Medium Scale

Small Scale

TYPES OF MAPS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Plan metric map Topographic map Photo map Joint operation graphics Photo mosaic Terrain model Military city map Special map Terrain Model

Definition of terms
Planimetric map This is a map that presents only the horizontal positions for
the features represented. It is distinguished from a topographic map by the mission of relief, normally represented by contour lines. Sometimes, it is called a line map.

Topographic map This is a map that portrays terrain features in a measurable


way (usually through use of contour lines), as well as the horizontal positions of the features represented. The vertical positions, or relief, are normally represented by contour lines on military topographic maps. On maps showing relief, the elevations and contours are measured from a specific vertical datum plane, usually mean sea level. a typical topographic map.

Plastic relief map A topographic map printed in plastic and molded into a three dimensional form. Photo map This is a reproduction of an aerial photograph upon which grid
lines, marginal data, place names, route numbers, important elevations, boundaries, and approximate scale and direction have been added. lines, marginal data, place, names, and boundaries maybe added.

Plastic relief photo map A photo map printed in Plastic and

Photo mosaic- An assembly of aerial photographs to form a composite picture. Military city maps- A large scale of topographic map of a city usually a scale 1:12,500. Special maps- Maps for special purpose such as trainability maps, transportation maps, boundary maps, etc. Terrain model- A three dimensional representation of an area, mold plaster, rubber of other materials. It is distinguished from the other maps in that it shows futures realistically instead Maps for special purpose such as trainability maps, transportation maps, boundary maps, etc.

Marginal information
The outer edges of a map contain information which is used to interpret the map. All map are not the same it is necessary, evrytime a different map is use, to examine carefully the marginal

information.

The parts of maps


Sheet name Projection note

Sheet number
Series Name Scale Edition number

Elevation guide
Legend

Index to boundaries
Adjoining sheet diagram Declination sheet diagram Bar Scale

Contour interval note


Spheroid note elevation guide Grid reference box

Definition of terms
Sheet name- Found into places; the center of the upper

margin and the right side of the lower margin. Generally, a map is used after its outstanding cultural or geographical feature. Whenever possible the name of the largest city on the map is used. Sheet number- Found in the right margin of the map. Series number and scale- Found in the upper left margin of the map.

Series number- Found in the upper right margin and in

the lower left margin of the map.

1.The first entry of a series number maybe either numeral or letter, it is a number it indicates a word series, and if a letter, it is indicates a geographical regional area. 2.The second entry is always a number and indicates the scale group of the map. 1:250,000 1:50,000 1:100,000 3.The third entry always a number and indicates the scale group of the map. 4.The fourth entry, identifies this series from others having the same scale and area average.

Edition number- Found in the center of the lower margin.


They are rulers used for the determination of ground distance. Bar scale- Located in the center of the lower margin. They are rulers used for the determination of ground distance. Index to adjoining sheets- Appears in the lower the margin. It identifies the map sheet surrounding the map. Index of boundaries- Appears in the lower margin. It identifies the map sheet surrounding the map. Grid reference box- Located in the lower margin and contains information or identifying the grid zone and 100,000 meters sq. in which the area presented by the map is located and instructions for giving grid reference on the map.

Legend- Located in the lower left margin. It illustrates

and identifies the topographic symbols used in the map. Declination diagram- Located in the lower margin and indicates the angular relationships of true north, grid north, and magnetic north. Contour interval- Found in the center of the lower margin and state the vertical distance between adjacent contour lines on the map.