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CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

Switching Concepts
Introduction to Ethernet/802.3 LANs Introduction to LAN Switching Switch Operation

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

Switching Concepts
Introduction to Ethernet/802.3 LANs

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

Ethernet Technology Overview


Ethernet multi-access broadcast technology Uses CSMA/CD Collisions impact on network performance Layer 2 devices can improve performance Media includes CAT5(e), fibre, wireless Speeds from 10Mbps to 10,000 Mbps
Chapter 4 Switching Concepts

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

Network Growth
Bandwidth needs have increased
Internet/intranet/email Multimedia Increasing use of enterprise servers

Ethernet has developed to meet challenge


10Mbps, 100Mbps, 1000Mbps, 10Gbit Coaxial, Twisted Pair, Fibre Optic, Wireless Repeaters, hubs, bridges, switches, routers

BUT you must understand the features of all this technology to gain best performance in your network design!
Chapter 4 Switching Concepts

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

Hubs
Layer 1 devices Regenerate, retime, amplify signals 1 collision/bandwidth domain Broadcasts propagated out of every port Only 1 device can transmit at a time Only 50-60% bandwidth available
Chapter 4 Switching Concepts

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

Bridges
Layer 2 device Splits network into 2 collision/bandwidth domains Broadcasts are forwarded Local traffic stays local Checks Layer 2 MAC addresses in 802.3 frame

Chapter 4 Switching Concepts

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

Switches
Layer 2 device Learns MAC addresses of devices attached to each port Each switchport is a collision domain More collision domains BUT smaller collision domains Broadcasts still sent out of every port Each switchport has dedicated bandwidth 100% bandwidth available
Chapter 4 Switching Concepts

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

Transmission Time & Latency


Bit time time taken to recognise 1 bit Minimum frame size - 64 bytes 512 bits Maximum frame size 1518 bytes 12,144 bits Transmission time is always 512 bit times 10Mbps 64 byte frame - 51,200 ns (100ns bit time) 100Mbps 64 byte frame 5,120 ns (10 ns bit time) 1000Mbps 64 byte frame 512 ns (1ns bit time)

Times above do not include Time taken to propagate signal along medium Delays introduced by hubs/switches/routers/NICs etc
Chapter 4 Switching Concepts

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

Types of Transmission
Half-duplex Host checks medium for signal if clear host transmits Only 1 host can transmit at a time Collisions jam signal generated, back-off algorithm before retransmission 50-60% bandwidth available
Chapter 4 Switching Concepts

Full duplex Host can transmit immediately 2 hosts can transmit simultaneously No collisions 100% bandwidth available Requires dedicated connection to a switchport

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

Switching Concepts
Introduction to LAN Switching Switch Operation

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

Overview
Maximum availability for the least cost
Reduce the effects of collisions on available bandwidth Reduce the effect of broadcasts on available bandwidth Deploy network hardware (media/switches/routers) to overcome bottlenecks & meet bandwidth requirements

Chapter 4 Switching Concepts

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

LAN Segmentation - bridges


A bridge splits a LAN into 2 segments It creates 2 collision domains Adds 10-30% latency Learns MAC addresses Keeps local traffic local Forwards broadcasts

Chapter 4 Switching Concepts

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

LAN Segmentation - Switches


Each switchport is a collision domain microsegmentation 100% bandwidth available to each switchport Every switchport can send/receive simultaneously Host to switch/switch to switch connection creates full duplex link
Chapter 4 Switching Concepts

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

LAN Switch Operation - 1


When a switch starts up it sends a broadcast out of all ports to learn host MAC addresses When a frame is received for an unknown destination a broadcast is sent to discover Addresses are added to a switching table mapping them to the port on which they were learned When a frame is received for a known destination it is switched to the appropriate port
Chapter 4 Switching Concepts

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

LAN Switch Operation - 2


Switches contain RAM known as CAM Content Addressable Memory Stores MAC address table Used as frame buffer Used to queue frames in asymmetric switching switchports operating at different speeds e.g. 10 and 100 Mbps

Chapter 4 Switching Concepts

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

Switching Methods
Increased Latency

Cut-through Switching Fast-forward as soon as destination address is read switching starts Fragment-free after 64 bytes have been received (minimum valid frame size) frame is switched Store & Forward Switching Entire frame is received before switching

Chapter 4 Switching Concepts

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

Terminology
Ignoring a frame filtering Copying a frame forwarding Microsegmentation dividing a network into smaller segments (using a switch)

Chapter 4 Switching Concepts

CISCO NETWORKING ACADEMY PROGRAM

CCNA3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0

Broadcasts
Bridges & switches cannot block layer 2 or layer 3 broadcasts Adding bridges or switches to a network extends the broadcast domain but creates additional collision domains a 24 port switch creates 24 collision domains Routers can inspect layer 3 packets and create broadcast domains a router with 3 ports creates 3 broadcast domains
Chapter 4 Switching Concepts