THE ELECTRIC BATTERY
of electric energy. A simple battery contains two dissimilar metals,
called ELECTRODES,
and a solution called the
ELECTROLYTE, in which the electrodes are
partially immersed.
CURRENT DENSITY (J):
The current density is a vector that describes the flow of charge through a cross section of the conductor at a particular point.
What is the direction of J?
J = J is the current per unit area through an
element.
i = ∫
J · dA
For a uniform current parallel to dA , J = i/A SI units for J: A/m ^{2}
The concept of streamlines: stream lines that are closer together imply greater current density.
In figure the current is the same for every plane that
passes completely through the conductor, but the current density is not the same everywhere!
Drift speed:
When there is a current, the random speed of electrons ~ 10 ^{6} m/s; however, the drift speed (v _{d} ) of electrons ~ 10 ^{}^{4} m/s, in the direction opposite of the direction of the applied electric
field that causes the current.
Relation between drift speed and current density:
q = (n A L) e t = L/ v _{d}
Therefore,
or
Note:
J = n e v _{d}
n: is the density of charge carriers. (n e): is the density of charge.
For negative charge carriers, J and v _{d} have opposite directions.
Resistors

Resistors are used to control the amount of current flowing in a circuit

Resistors have resistances from less than 1 ohm to millions of ohms

The two main types of resistors:
–
Wirewound (coil of fine wire)resistors
– Composition (carbon) resistors
Resistors
For the color code, the first
two colors represent the first two digits in the value of the resistor, the third
represents the power of ten
that it must be multiplied by, and the fourth is the
tolerance.
Resistivity and Temperature

In general, the resistance of metals increases with temperature due to the increased movement and less orderly arrangement of the atoms

Within a certain range of temperature, the resistivity of a conductor changes according to the equation:
following
_{O} is the resistivity at
some reference temperature such as 0 or 20 degrees ,
is the temperature coefficient of resistivity
R _{O} is the resistance at some
reference temperature such as 0 or 20 degrees
Variation of with temperature:
increases ~ linearly with temperature (for metals):
 _{o} = _{o} (TT _{o} )
is called the temperature coefficient of resistivity.
Resistivity and Temperature
ELECTRIC POWER

ELECTRIC POWER equals the product of the current I and the potential difference V, i.e., P = IV.

The SI unit of power is the watt (W), where 1 W = 1 J/s. The kilowatt is a commonly used unit
where I kilowatt = 1000 watts.
represent electric energy production and consumption
where I kWh = 3.6 x
10 ^{6} J.
Electric Power

In a circuit of resistance R, the rate at which electrical energy is converted to heat energy is given by

P = IV but V = IR, then P = I(IR) =I ^{2} R

where
I ^{2} R is known as JOULE
HEATING.

An alternate formula for power can be written, since I = V/R, then P = IV = (V/R)V = V ^{2} /R

P=V ^{2} /R= I ^{2} R are power formulas which apply only to resistors

P = IV Applies to any device