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2013/1/18 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 1

Particulate Scrubbers
Types of scrubbers: spray chamber and
venturi scrubber
Theory and design consideration
Pressure drop
Contacting power

Reading: Chap. 7
www.wpclipart.com/weather/happy_rain_cloud.png
2013/1/18 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 2
Spray Chamber
R
e
c
i
r
c
u
l
a
t
e
d

w
a
t
e
r

Water to settling basin and recycle pump
Vertical spray chamber (countercurrent flow)
Collecting medium:
- Liquid drops
- Wetted surface
Q: What parameters will affect
the collection efficiency?
Q: Any other arrangement of
air & water?
2013/1/18 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 3
Q: Is the gas velocity of any concern? Is droplet size important?
2013/1/18 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 4
Cyclone Spray Chamber &
Impingement Scrubber
Flagan & Seinfeld, Fundamental of Air
Pollution Engineering, 1988
Q: Is used water
recirculated?
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Venturi Scrubber
Handbook of Air Pollution Control Engineering & Technology, Mycock, McKenna & Theodore, CRC Inc., 1995.
High efficiency even for small particles
Q: ESP for sticky, flammable or highly corrosive materials?
Q
L
/Q
G
: 0.001 - 0.003 V
G
: 60 - 120 m/s
2013/1/18 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 6
Theory: Spray Chamber
Droplet concentration in the chamber
d c d
L
d c
d
d
V A d
Q
V A
N
n
3
6
t
= =
V
d
: droplet falling velocity relative to a fixed coordinate
V
td
: droplet terminal settling velocity in still air (i.e. relative to the gas flow)
Volume of each droplet
3
6
d d
d
t
u =
Total number of droplets that pass the chamber per second
3
3
6
6
d
L
d
L
d
L
d
d
Q
d
Q Q
N
t
t
u
= = =
V
td
V
G
V
d
G td d
V V V =
Q
L
: volumetric liquid flow rate
2013/1/18 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 7
Volume of air that flows through the cross-section area of a single
droplet during the time dt
dz
V
V
d dt V d
d
td
d td d
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
2 2
single air,
4 4
V
t t
Total effective volume of gas swept clean per second by all
droplets in dz
3
2
all air,
6
4
V
d
L
d
td d
d
d
Q
dz
V
V d
t
t
q
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
At a given time dt, the distance a droplet falls is
dt V dz
d
=
Total number of particles swept clean per second by all droplets in dz
z p
d
L
d
td d
d p
n
d
Q
dz
V
V d
dN
,
3
2
6
4 t
t
q
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2013/1/18 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 8
Q
L
Q
G
z
N
2 / dz z
N

2 / dz z
N
+
Total number of particles removed per second over dx
( )
2 / , 2 / , dz z p dz z p
c G p
n n A V dN
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
G
d td d
G td d G
d td L
d
Q
V A
V V d Q
z V Q
q
q
exp
) ( 2
3
exp P
Particle penetration in a countercurrent vertical
spray chamber
Cross-sectional area of all the droplets
( )
( )
G td d
L d
d c d
L
c d
V V d
z Q d
V A d
Q
z A A

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
3
4
6
2
3
t
t
2013/1/18 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 9
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
) (
10 12 . 6
exp P
4
G td d G
d td L
d
V V d Q
z V Q q
If Q
L
in gal/min and Q
G
in cfm, z in ft and d
d
in m
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
G
d td d
d
d
G
L
d
Q
V A
z
d Q
Q q q
exp
2
3
exp P
Particle penetration in a cross-flow spray chamber
Q: How do we have higher collection efficiency?
Q: What are the collection mechanisms (we need it for q
d
)?
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2013/1/18 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 11
Single droplet collection efficiency
d
p
d
d
= k
G
L

e =
Diameter ratio
Viscosity ratio
d
G
G td d
V d


= Re
D
Sc
G
G

=
d G
td p p c
d
V d C
St

18
2
=
Particle Reynolds # Particle Schmidt # Particle Stokes #
Deposition of Particles on a Spherical Collector
(diffusion)
(interception)
(impaction)
2013/1/18 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 12
Impaction only
2
35 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
St
St
I d
q q

p
= 2 g/cm
3

Q: Why is there an
optimal size?
Q: The operating condition of a vertical countercurrent spray chamber are: Q
L
/Q
G
= 1 L/m
3
,
V
G
= 20 cm/s, d
d
= 300 m and z = 1 m. Calculate the collection efficiency of 8 m
particles through this chamber. Assume atmospheric pressure, 25
o
C and
p
of 1 g/cm
3
.
(Impaction parameter K
p
is
used in textbook; K
p
= 2 St)
2013/1/18 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 13
Venturi Scrubbers: Calvert Design

(
(

+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
po po
po
po
G G
d L G L
d
K f K
f K
f K
Q
d V Q 1
7 . 0
49 . 0
7 . 0
7 . 0
ln 4 . 1 7 . 0
55
exp P

Particle penetration through a venturi scrubber


K
po
=2St (aerodynamic diameter) using throat velocity
f = 0.5 for hydrophilic materials, 0.25 for hydrophobic materials
Sauter mean droplet diameter
( )
5 . 1
45 . 0
5 . 0
5 . 0
1
1000 597
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
G
L
L
L
L G
d
Q
Q
V
k
d
o

o
k
1
= 58600 if V
G
is in cm/s
= 1920 if V
G
is in ft/s
o,
L
and should be in cgs
Q
L
and Q
G
should be of the same unit
2013/1/18 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 14
1
16
3
) 1 ( 2
2 4 2
2
+ =
+ =
= A
L d
G Dd t
G
L
G L
d
C l
X
X X X k
Q
Q
V k p

Pressure Drop
Venturi Scrubber
l
t
: venturi throat length
X: dimensionless throat length
Ex: 10 water, 2 m, q = ?
2013/1/18 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 15
Contacting Power
Approach
) exp( 1
t
N = q
|
o
T t
P N =
Contacting power, hp/1000 cfm
When compared at the same power
consumption, all scrubbers give the
same degree of collection of a given
dispersed dust, regardless of the
mechanisms involved and regardless
of whether the pressure drop is
obtained by high gas flow rate or high
water flow rate
(P
T
in hp / 1000 acfm)
N
t
: Number of transfer unit
(unitless)
(1 inch of water = 0.1575 hp/1000 cfm)
Venturi scrubber collecting a metallurgical fume
Q: Tests of a venturi scrubber show the results
listed on the right. Estimate the contacting
power required to attain 97% efficiency.
Friction loss (in H
2
O) q (%)
12.7 56
38.1 89
2013/1/18 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 16
2013/1/18 Aerosol & Particulate Research Lab 17
Quick Reflection